Reliability of small tools

EXPERIENCE combat the introduction of instruments indicates that the weapon, possession of a good fire, and the reality of the highest maneuverability, can not get the recognition, if it does not provide the required reliability of the act. Reliability tools provides assurance fighter in his own weapon when used in different criteria. Under the reliability is the property of the object to do these functions, saving time meaning prescribed performance within the given limits, corresponding to the terms and conditions for the use, maintenance, repair, storage and transportation.

Reliability acts gun is a totality of the parameters characterizing the reliability of the instruments, and the vitality of its invincibility in battle. Reliability is all-inclusive property and is determined by: dependability acts devices security appeal with the gun, survival or duration of service; invulnerability guns in battle; maintainability; persistence.

Reliability of small arms

Gryazyuka not spooky Kalashnikov

Reliability and dependability acts guns — in the highest degree of fundamental characteristics. It seems that neither were high individual properties guns, but if it does not have sufficient reliability, that are brought to naught all its positive aspects.

Under the act implements dependability is the property of the object without annoying continue to operate within a certain time or a certain generation and ensure maintenance mode set fire to various criteria. Trouble-free device implements the act should be provided in all the criteria for its use (the highest or lowest temperature gryazyuka, dust, sand, etc.), as in conventional (appropriate) criteria for the shooting, and under adverse (dusty, dry parts, irrigation, etc. .)
In automatic weapons reliability of devices is one of the important operating parameters, and it is estimated the number of failures (misfires, jamming device) which account for a certain number of shots, and the convenience of their elimination. Ensuring the reliability of automatic weapons offense in comparison with a non-automatic weapon is more difficult because of its greater difficulty and more devices. Trouble-free operation of automatic guns determined priemuschestvenno trouble-free operation of automation, which is defined as devices totality of tools, operating through the use of the energy of powder gases. Trouble-free act of automation is dependent on a huge number of reasons. The most important of them are the perfect design master devices and the use of additional measures (for example, shields that protect the more fundamental mechanisms of contamination), their mode of operation and operating conditions, as experienced preparing to fire guns and the use of special lubricants.
The perfection of the devices is determined by the simplicity of their design, smooth motion detail protecting work surfaces from contamination, low weight and dimensions of parts and other factors.
Mode of operation of the devices is dependent on the rate of fire and the type of fire (single, continuous, not long or longish queue). The impact test operation for work automation tools as determined by external factors (temperature, humidity, dust, lubrication condition) and the correctness of the care of the instrument, correct preparation for firing guns, timely cleaning, grease, etc.)

Delays in the shooting are very unnecessary, because they cause obliged breaks in shooting, reducing the rate of firing guns and reality. No matter what kind of delay in the gun dramatically reduces the combat characteristics of guns, and the occurrence of delays in combat criteria increases the risk of defeat by the enemy, especially in the criteria for conducting a close fight. Ensuring the reliability of devices act implements achieved by reduction to the minimum number of delays due to development of a successful design tools, tough competitive tests in the selection of reference for the army.
Consequently, in modern automatic weapons allowed very errant number of delays not exceeding the criteria for suitable shooting 0.2-0.3%. Under unfavorable shooting criteria usually increases the number of delays, but it also should not exceed a certain norm. Usually you can have one — two out 1,000 shots. Permitted by firing delays have usually just eliminated the usual reloading, with all this to eliminate some delays should have a special accessory.

Safety appeal with the gun is of great importance from the standpoint of how to reduce the losses of personnel, as well as purely psychologically confident fighter in the reliability and security of its own tools helps to build up his morale. Safety appeal to the instrument should be provided both in shooting and in the official criteria for when the gun is loaded. Security is obtained by firing due to strong selection of metals and construction details of the design of reliable, sensing the pressure of powder gases and other efforts resulting from the shot, as the presence of special fuses, precluding the establishment of a shot at the gate unlocked. Safety appeal to the instrument in the service criteria provided by the device fuses exclusive shots that arise as a result of accidental exposure to the details of the trigger (for transportation and maintenance, during the fall of the charged weapons and other criteria), or random shots of not fully serviceable guns .

Reliability of small arms

5.45mm Kalashnikov AK-74 in field criteria

Vitality guns and some of its components is of great importance in ensuring reliability, because due to lack of viability instrument fails or one hundred percent, or for a substantial time required for repair. Survivable weapon called the ability to maintain its parts for a long time conventional combat characteristics in different operating criteria. Vitality instruments characterized by the number of shots that tool can produce up to failure. Length of service (vitality) automatic guns determined priemuschestvenno, strength and durability and its main parts invulnerable in battle. Sturdiness and durability of parts tools is based on their size and shape, elected in light of current stresses and strains, the properties of the material used and the characteristics of the production technology. Increase the survivability of parts tools provided by a number of measures, and the first implementation of high-quality carbon and alloy steels for critical parts, chrome plated shafts, ensuring the smooth functioning of the automation, serious observance of service regulations, the possibility of substitution of the usual method of repair parts, etc.

On the vitality of guns have a huge impact conditions of use. Among them, special importance is the rate of fire and Conditions savings and storage tools. With increasing intensity of fire determines the mode of fire, the vitality of guns is lowered due to a high heat and wear parts. Greater impact on the rate of fire has a barrel life, length of service which dramatically decreases with increasing the rate of fire and the length of the queue. The deviation from the established norms and storage savings instruments also reduces its vitality. With all of this has a special significance and timeliness of cleaning grease guns, reducing wear and protects them from corrosion.

The dynamic nature forces and stresse
s in almost every detail of automatic weapons makes it difficult to ensure their durability and is one of the main reasons for comparable low survivability. For this and other details of the circumstances of vitality automatic guns do not exceed a few 10 s of thousands of shots. Of particular importance is the provision of sufficient barrel life, which plays a crucial role in the overall vitality of the gun. With all this vitality instruments measured at the level of durability that is, by the ability of an object to survive before the coming of the limit state when the installed system maintenance and repairs. In the arms, usually, the durability is estimated resource of the barrel, with the coming of the ultimate state of being tried by one of the indirect signs: the initial velocity of the projectile fall by 5% (from time to time by 10%), increase the technical dispersion of bullets and shells at 2.5 times , hit 50% of the bullets and shells at a target flat (loss of strength).

In combat weapon criteria can fail not only due to insufficient strength of its parts, and as a result exposure to enemy fire. This impact will be smaller than most invulnerability has tool in combat.

Under the invulnerability of guns in battle means the ability of tools to maintain their performance when exposed to enemy fire. Invulnerability guns in combat is characterized by lack of parts, just discharged from failure of a shock wave of bullets, fragments, and protected by a more fundamental parts and devices from battle damage and strength. In addition, it is dependent on the size of instruments that determine its ease of concealment in combat. Increase invulnerability in battle is largely contributes to the correct choice and firing positions.

The efficiency of guns is reversed battle situation (instrument must be maintainable, ie recoverable object). Maintainability — property instruments, consisting in the adaptation to the prevention and detection of its failure, damage and their implications performing repairs and maintenance. To ensure maintainability instrument must be equipped with the necessary tools and spare parts.

Another one of the parameters of reliability tools is its persistence, ie, the property of an object without annoying to maintain a usable and serviceable condition during and after storage, and (or) transport. Storability is especially important for guns and ammunition, because the vast number of them done in time of peace.

In the middle of service and reliability of the instrument operating parameters of great importance in ensuring the ease and convenience of care at different operating criteria has a technical service.

Reliability of small armsShooting with a sub-machine gun PP-90

Compared with non-automatic service weapon automatic weapon is more difficult because of its relative difficulty, the presence of different devices that require more painstaking care also significantly greater fuel cartridges when shooting.

Technical service is characterized by convenience and ease of combat power tools, it is ready for shooting and maintenance of the weapon, and also saving storage.

Ease of combat power tool is dependent on the flow rate of cartridges at a time, the number of different types of cartridges used for this type of weapon, and convenience stores their equipment and tapes.

Ease of preparation for firing guns determined easily transfer it from traveling to combat, set on fire position, loading guns and set off the fuses and run. On the serviceability tools for shooting affect the simplicity and ease of management of individual mechanisms, ease of reloading tools for using up ammunition in a store or tape, eliminate delays and perform other operations necessary to ensure the fire.

Designation of the instrument is achieved by reducing the effort that must apply to the mechanisms of guns, more convenient location for their hand or by calculation device special handles, stops and seats, the presence of scales and indexes to facilitate the use of the instrument and its individual mechanisms, ease their adjustment to different criteria.

Savings and convenience store guns determined by simple inspection and monitoring tool, carefully care for them, especially the performance of cleaning and oiling guns in different operating criteria.
For this purpose, a tool must possess the greatest simplicity of design, ease of disassembly and assembly, special guards and devices to protect against damage to the parts and the penetration of dust and mud, provided with suitable tools and accessories.

The simplicity of design tools provides the ease of its research personnel, which is of fundamental importance in modern conditions of mass armies, especially in wartime.

To maintain the tools in good order and unchanged battle availability of great importance, along with maintenance, repair tools is providing his recovery from acquired damage and wear.

Regardless of the amount of work, disposition of the equipment and tool repair small tools can be small and medium-sized. Small repair anticipates execution of simple operations (for example, the replacement of broken parts in other parts of the number of available spare parts, rust removal, deburring of metal at elevated dents and nicks, etc.), usually produced by hand using light equipment and instruments. Average repair tool provides recovery using more complex operations with the introduction of machinery and electric welding (Lock and new parts, welding cracks and welding of worn parts and components, etc.).

In the middle of different methods of restoring worn and warped parts received more extensive use of electric welding, providing the highest technological renovation.

Reliability of small arms

After a series of light movements of the hand machine is again ready to fire

Getting tired of the internal service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation asked each soldier a good knowledge of guns and careful appeal to him. The implementation of this tasks is impossible without the knowledge of the circumstances that affect the change of technical condition of instruments and, accordingly, its reliability and dependability act.

It is clear that some configurations are natural and occur as a result of normal wear and tear on the duration of use. From fire to fire growing gaps between parts and assembly units, there is inflated pitching. For example, when firing an AK-74 is an increase in pitching rod bolt from 4 to 6 mm.

In case of insufficient cleaning of the barrel in places xpoma cleavage occurs rust, long exposure as a result of which form the shell. When shooting from a gun with the defeat of the barrel is usually seen worse results accuracy (increased dispersion of bullets by 20%) can be tight ripped the sleeve from the chamber, and in general opyzhie fails before reaching this vitality.
Many of the configuration of a technical condition to certain values do not affect the combat and service properties of the gun, these changes can not be excluded, but slow their growth can be.

Experience of combat deployment and daily use tools developed rules allowing to prevent or delay the appearance of unwanted configurations in arms due to incorrect operation.

And then it makes sense to see some rules more appeal with the gun.

It is well known that after eac
h removal to practice (watch) tool undergoes routine maintenance. Compliance with the rules of the assembly and careful appeal with the details and mechanisms — one of the main criteria when servicing tools.

If the items and parts (bolt carrier, gas tube, etc.) fall into place with difficulty (due to misalignment, locking, etc.) means the assembly is done incorrectly and applying extra effort, and even more unacceptable impacts on the details. Evidence of attempts to incorrect assembly is the emergence of embossments and cracks in the window receiver cover machine or machine gun Kalashnikov.

Some damage weapon does more of the less complete disassembly, because with all this broken seats and parts PUNCHING pins or beading axles — all this leads to a pitching details, shift or fall-out pins and axles. For this reason, in the Manual on small business is not listed dismantling pillar rear sight RPK-74 machine gun, only in very rare cases, the recommended separation forearm 5.45-mm machine gun or automatic Kalashnikov, and screw sear trigger mechanism of the RPG-7 In general it is forbidden to separate.

The operational documentation (advice and guidance on small business) with cases when you should make a complete disassembly of the gun. In particular, emphasizes that the demolition of more complex devices (electric trigger tank and machine gun NSVT, the trigger mechanism AK-74 machine gun RPK-74) is done under the supervision of an officer or spetsa repair the organ.

Complete disassembly tools recommended in the amount desired for maintenance. In order to avoid twisting, dents and imperfections pushing and setting pins and axles securing the parts in machinery tools, create only when holding the main parts (gate, building electric trigger) hands on the wood base.

The zeal to reduce the cleaning time of the bore machine or machine gun cleaning rod without lid canister leads to Pounded muzzle, due to scattering by firing bullets may Strength in two — three times. To reduce Pounded changeable barrel PKM before servicing the barrel separated from the gun and cleaned from the breech.

Incorrect assembly tools can be a precondition delay when firing guns and accelerated depreciation. When the standards (landing into a fighting machine, demolition, weapons and other acts with a gun at the time) to protect the instrument from impact.

The position of the gun in storage is determined by its design features. Thus, the Kalashnikov assault rifle after ramming the bolt to the gate in the latest frontal position certainly made descent hammers and staging gun safety latch.

Different criteria of the combat situation and the need to rigorously study to make major demands on storage and use of guns.

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