For thousands of years homo sapiens demonstrated its superiority in the home called Earth. People studying natural phenomena, weather forecasts and predicts some natural disasters. Machinery, equipment and personnel — all efforts aimed at the prevention of natural disasters. But time after time the Nature presents us with unpleasant surprises, and time after time failures to explain the causes of natural phenomena is the basis for the emergence of various scenarios of the Apocalypse.
Nature lives by its own rules, the main one — cycling. Assess the nature can only studying climate history in all phases of the planet Earth.
The history of climate change are inextricably linked to volcanic activity. According to most scholars, it is the main cause of climate change on Earth. Volcanic activity was the cause of the formation of the Earth's atmosphere and the origin of life on Earth, while the over-activity of volcanoes can lead to the extinction of all life on the planet, that is, to sterilize the planet.
Volcanoes — a geological formation on the surface of the crust of the Earth or other planets where the magma reaches the surface as lava, volcanic gases, rocks and pyroclastic flows. Volcanology and geomorphology — the science that studies volcanoes and their activities. Volcanoes are classified by activity (extinct, dormant, action), form, location and other characteristics. Active volcano — a volcano, which erupted during the Holocene (interglacial). Classification of volcanic activity on the relative and a matter of controversy, since the period of volcanic activity may last up to several million years. Volcanic activity, according to astrophysicists, can be caused by tidal action satellite moon, sun, and the influence of other planets and satellites in the solar system.
Some astrophysicists hypothesize that during the Earth-to-Neptune opposition under the influence of Neptune's tidal forces are the most powerful volcanic eruptions. This hypothesis is related to the opening, with the help of mathematical calculations, Neptune. Scientists have found changes in Uranus is probably taking place under the influence of gravitational forces unknown planet, and calculated the probability of finding the planet, were later due to strong winds (speed reaches 2100 km / h) the name of Neptune.
M. Malankovich, engineer, geophysicist, astronomer and climatologist created the theory of ice ages, known as cycles Malankovicha. He believed that to climate change (in particular volcanic activity) influences the position of the Earth: the change of eccentricity every 150,000 years, changes in the plane of the ecliptic and the threshold of the equinoxes.
Vladimir Mikhailovich Kotlyakov, Doctor of Geographical Sciences believes that climate change is directly related to tectonic activity that takes place on Earth. Tectonic activity referred to emergency situations that cause floods, hurricanes and other natural disasters. Geologists have not solved the problem of determining the source of heat for local melting of the mantle or the eruption of the basalt layer. Scientists have put forward the theory of the origin of these three processes.
• Melting caused by local concentrations of radioactive elements.
• Tectonic shifts and breaks are accompanied by the release of large amounts of thermal energy.
• The upper basalt layer at a high pressure in the solid state, the formation of cracks pressure drops, which leads to the melting of the mantle and further spreading of the cracks.
I must say that the biggest accumulation of active volcanoes located in the Pacific volcanic ring of fire or zones of the earth. Pacific volcanic ring of fire stretching over 40,000 kilometers on the shape of a horseshoe. Ring of Fire is the Earth from the Kamchatka Peninsula on the Kurile, Japanese and Fillipinskim islands, eastern Indonesia and New Zealand, then across Antarctica to the South and North America and ends in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The ring has 328 active volcanoes, which is 75% of the global number of active volcanoes. Continents of the Pacific Ring of Fire — young enough education. Active in the area of fire zone of the Earth suggests that the formation of the continents finally completed. The continents gradually converge, but the convergence of a few million years were minor, averaging 2-4 cm per year.
Note that the initial position of the continents and the continents and the idea of continental drift was formulated by German meteorologist Alfred Wegener. In his book "The Origin of Continents and Oceans," German scientists have proved that on the ground there was only one continent, which Wegener called Pangea and one ocean Panthalassa. About 250-200 million years ago, Pangaea split into separate sections, which under the influence of the repulsive forces of the earth and drifted basalts. The scientist could not explain the reasons for the drift of the continents and the nature of forces that move them. The hypothesis of continental drift is now recognized by most geophysicists, geologists worldwide. The overwhelming majority of scientists suggest that this tectonic processes caused the fragmentation of continents and led to the emergence of the modern continents.
In the Pacific, located several areas sprawl ocean floor, the main area — the East Pacific (includes undersea lithospheric plates Nazca and Cocos). Above each of the area stretches a chain of volcanoes, which form the Pacific Rim, is interrupted at the point where there are no tectonic plate dives into the mantle — from New Zealand and along the Antarctic coast. In addition, there is no tectonic activity in two areas of the coast of North America and along the Peninsula of California (cut more than 2,000 km) to the north of Vancouver Island (segment primerno1500 km).
Scientists have found that 90% of the earthquakes of the world, of which 80% of the most powerful place in the Pacific ring of fire. The largest volcanic eruption in the area of a fire zone is well known to a wide range of people through modern technical capabilities.
However, American geologists claim that the most powerful volcanic eruption in XX century there was in Alaska (now the U.S. state).
Thus, the June 6, 1912 began the most violent eruption Novarupta. The population of Alaska, so few in our time, there was even less in 1912, so there was no significant sacrifices, and outside the continent event went unnoticed. The population of Juneau in 1200 km from the volcano heard an explosion coming from the volcano hour after the start of the eruption. An ash cloud rose to a height of almost 20 kilometers. Ash fell within 3 days. Nearly 33 cm of ash covered the ground. People were hiding in the basements of houses, buildings collapsed under the heavy ash.
June 9 eruption ceased by the time sent ash cloud spread across the southern Alaska, western Canada, more and more U.S. states. June 19 sent ash cloud reached Africa. The eruption appeared Novarupty most extensive valley bedding frozen pyroclastic flows stretching over 120 km. Robert Griggs called it "Valley of 10,000 smokers." Geologists believe that the eruption Novarupty caused drought and temperature fluctuations in northern Africa.
At present, research Ring of Fire Earth continues. On every continent Pacific volcanic ring of fire is a research station that studies the tectonic activity. Russian scientists are also not left behind. Expedition of the Russian Geographical Society, "Ring of Fire Earth" plans for 900 days to investigate 70 sleeping and active volcanoes Pacific Rim. The expedition started in February 2011 in Alaska, its completion is expected in Kamchatka in 2013.
Nature on the planet Earth is still able to maintain a balance, but how long will it last? Humanity is important to understand the basics of the universe.
The relatively young science of Volcanology (in 2012 will be 100 years since the opening of the first Volcano Observatory on the slopes of Vesuvius) to solve three main objectives: to determine the source of heat during the eruption of volcanoes, learn how to predict volcanic eruptions, learn to use volcanic heat hot water and steam for the needs of humanity in a catastrophic loss of environmental resources.
Many scientists also believe that the study of the planets and the solar system satellites can provide us with some information about the Earth's tectonic activity. It is interesting that on Io, a moon of Jupiter was seen volcanic activity (the length of the loop during the eruption of volcanoes in the world is 300 km). Extinct volcano Olympus on Mars is also of interest to volcanologists. Neptune, which we discussed above, receives only 40% of the energy of the sun, and produces 161%! Some scholars, on the basis of these facts suggest the presence of an unknown element, which is the source of this enormous power.
All these facts and hypotheses suggest the need for further exploration of space, perhaps there are answers to unsolved mysteries of the universe, as big as it is known, is seen in the distance.