Sea turtles are able to determine not only the latitude, longitude and

Biologists first to show that animals which changes in the magnetic field of the Earth, not only from the south to the north, and from west to east. And this innate ability.
Navigation of marine animals during long migrations in the ocean is intriguing scientists as much navigation birds. Marine life is perhaps even more difficult because, unlike birds, they can not use landmarks. But sea turtles, for example, the ocean swim great distances. To navigate them is the magnetic field of the Earth. The turtles use it, the team has found Kenneth Lohmann (Kenneth Lohmann) from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill). The first time scientists have shown that the animal is determined by the magnetic field not only latitude, but longitude.
Biologists conducted an experiment Loggerhead sea turtle, or Caretta (Caretta caretta). In nature, turtles born on the coast of Florida, into the water and swim to the first east to the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Getting into this course, they are then in a few years to migrate around the Atlantic, gradually approaching back to North America.
Magnetic model of the Atlantic
The experiment involved newborn turtles, who had never seen the ocean. Researchers put them in a big fishbowl, the perimeter of which the system of coils produce magnetic fields of different orientation. First, scientists reproduced the parameters of the magnetic field on the western Atlantic near Puerto Rico, and some time later changed it to "the magnetic field on the eastern Atlantic near the Cape Verde Islands." She and the other point is at the same latitude. It turned out that the first turtle swam to the north-east and then turns south-west. This suggests that the animals pick up the difference in the parameters of the magnetic field of the Earth at different longitudes and use it for navigation.
Location in the ocean by two coordinates: latitude and longitude. And latitude is determined by the magnetic field of the Earth is more or less just because its figures vary significantly from the poles to the equator. Determine longitude is much more complicated, because the east-west direction of the magnetic field changes very little. Scientists have not yet faced with the fact that some marine animal to determine longitude. "Mariners took centuries to learn how to determine longitude during long journeys, — says Nathan Putman (Nathan Putman), the first author of the study. — The first time we have shown that animals do. "
Two-dimensional map in your head
Turtles in the direction of motion of the artificial magnetic field coincides with the direction of their migration to the Atlantic Ocean. Researchers concluded that turtles possess a two-dimensional "magnetic map", which is used for navigation. The secret of the construction of this map is that the turtles perceive not one but at least two parameters: the magnetic declination (the angle between the magnetic field and the line of the meridian) and the strength of the magnetic field. Probably, every point on the migratory path of the turtles is characterized by a unique combination of magnetic variation and the magnetic force, as it has its own "magnetic signature".
Speaking of the "magnetic card" in the head turtles, scientists, of course, do not think that animals have a real understanding of their geographical location. Rather, the magnetic characteristics of the point in the ocean will automatically call a particular orientation of the body. This ability is innate, since she already has newborn turtles. But, most of all, the experience of transoceanic migrations animals are used for navigation and other keys. But the mechanisms of magnetic perception at the level of physiology turtles have yet to understand.
How sea turtles not only measure the latitude, longitude, and can be read in the journal Current Biology.

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