Secrets of Kharkov dungeons soon open to tourists

05.07.2004

05.07.2004


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In Kharkov catacombs will drive tourists. According to First Deputy Mayor of Kharkov, Vladimir Babaev, the company "Metroproekt" today it is developing a plan arrangement of the dungeon.

Entrance to the catacombs discovered in May of this year in the center of Kharkov, when they started to build a new city hall building. This finding confirmed the legend that under the historical part of the city, perhaps, there is an extensive system of moves to create at least two centuries ago. According to Vladimir Babaev furnished tunnels will be another sightseeing attraction of Kharkiv.

Legends of the underground Kharkov

In the middle of the nineteenth century during a fire at Mordvinovo lane in front of the assembled crowd fell into the ground stud gendarme. When the terrified man pulled out of a deep hole, it was found that out of it there is a secret underground manhole. The authorities offered the two criminals sentenced to death for the forgiveness found to pass on the go and find where it ends. For three days, these people went through the dungeon and finally cracking the floor, went to the church of St. Nicholas.

Taking a meal, they again went down and came already at the Governor's house, which was then on Katerynoslavs'ka. Then he went into the cave to get out this time around as much Holodnogorsko prison. On what he has seen in the secret passages pardoned criminals spoke very little and reluctantly. It was possible to find out just what in the cave they found a large stone pillar around which there were twelve stone chairs and on the table lay an open book with the predictions of human lives …

Kharkov Catacombs — one of the most mysterious and fascinating pages of the history of the city. How many legends, rumors, speculation, mountains covered with writing about literature. But the strange thing is, over time, becoming only the thick darkness. Moreover, many of Kharkov convinced that underground passages — is nothing more than a beautiful legend. Well, so be it. But even legends are entitled to their story.

I must say that the rumors about secret passages in Kharkov never died. In the beginning of the last century, when some of Kharkiv suddenly became rich, popular rumor attributed it hoards allegedly lying in the dungeons. They remembered the citizens and the famous tower Tainitski Kharkiv fortress, where, according to legend, throws stretched for tens of kilometers. But seriously this matter no one did.

Only at the beginning of the twentieth century, when Kharkov experienced a building boom on urban flood of incredible discoveries. When laying the foundations of new buildings builders have found many underground tunnels. Paschenkovsky passage home Zheverzheeva, the Azov-Don and the Land banks, home Freiman, Commercial Club — Today these names say little ordinary Kharkov, and then they were on everyone's lips. Newspaper "Southern Land", "Morning" and other publications in each issue published sensational reports of new discoveries.

City Council set up a special commission, which found that the moves end, mostly dead ends and debris. Then the first plans were drawn discovered caves. It has come to the point that moves started to look by means of rotating the hands of metal frames, such as those as those enjoyed by the current psychics. However, to practice this method of searching for an engineer Montvid wrung a price for their services, the commission quickly from them refused.

Active research was interrupted by the First World War. Then the Revolution, the Civil War. During the bloody events of the era began to forget even what was previously known. In the 20 years has been made yet another weak attempt to draw public attention to the plight of the priceless historical monument. But it ended only because of the dungeons smoked a lot of street children who were hiding there. And since the 30-ies of any attempt to study the catacombs firmly blocked by the NKVD, who had a self-interest underground passages.

Since then, all that relates to this issue, solidly covered with a veil of state secrets, and some researchers are attempting to reach under her veil, died under mysterious circumstances. But first things first.

History of research

What do we know today? First, Kharkov tunnels are classified as in a four time level. The oldest — is primitive caves, which date, please pay attention, even pre-Christian times. They found the remains of pagan graves. Second dug in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, which is an indirect confirmation of the fact that our city was founded much earlier than is commonly believed today.

The third and the most active period of civil engineering refers to the Petrine era. To protect against the Swedes, Tatars and Cossacks were built secret underground passages to the rivers, and to the forests, to cover Kharkov from the north. This is for the evacuation of residents and raids behind enemy lines. It is interesting that the moves had excellent acoustics, and people hiding in them perfectly represented what was happening above them. In addition, the defenders of the fortress Kharkov dug a huge number of false turns, dead ends and traps in order to confuse the enemy, if he dares to turn up at the catacombs.

And finally, the underground construction of the Soviet period. For example, the underpass of the NKVD building on the square Sovnarkomovskaya to Rudnev, to the headquarters of the military district. Or underground passage from the former regional party to the metro station "University". There are other, much larger underground structures, but, unlike the chief Ukrainian KGB agents Skripalskogo, blurted out the Americans state secrets, "First Capital" is able to keep military secrets.

Perhaps it is because of too much awareness of existing underground defense facilities killed several researchers Kharkov catacombs. These people were of the war generation of boys who have seen with their own eyes how the retreating Soviet troops were hiding in the underground passage to the park to them. Shevchenko, huge amounts of chemical shells. Perhaps they are still there.

When the Germans retreated, the boys saw how far from the former Palace of Pioneers Germans were hiding in a cave mysterious oblong boxes. And the boys knew that when the Nazis broke again in Kharkiv, a handful of Soviet soldiers barricaded in the House of the Red Army, and then, having beaten the next storm, went through the underpass.

And after becoming adult men, these people continued to dive into the dungeon, bringing out more and more evidence for the existence of a secret city. There is reason to believe that under the center of the city remained almost untouched vast underground labyrinth. It has survived, despite the rapid post-war construction and ignorance of ordinary people, destroying the traces of underground tunnels. Legends of the Kharkov's catacombs told http://1stolitsa.kharkov.co

Brave cavers

That's nothing, will continue to be terrible. We just go to the terrible secrets of the underground, which turns out to be many years already hides Kharkov. The catacombs beneath the city, mysticism, twelve stone seats and book of human destinies. Secrets of the dungeons are just beginning to open up due to curiosity and courage of people such as Dmitry Litvinenko. He says the cave — a good "zamanuha" for tourists and maniacs.

Yard City Council — out on the street Kvitki Osnovyanenko. Today, there are building high-rise building. The foundation began to pour in November. The standard procedure. Scored round here these piles, concrete is poured into them. The problems began when construction workers began to install the extreme pipe. Concrete pipe is in, and the pile is empty. Spending nekazenny concrete into the empty builders did not. Invited cavers, people who study caves. At a depth of seven meters drill cavers began making idle. Researchers have cleared the hole and went underground.

Three hundred years ago, there was a residential area. At the river settled artisans and merchants. Kharkiv fortress stood on the dais. In an emergency, people were hiding in the fortress. You can get there were two ways — on the ground and under the ground.

Andrei Kovalev, Engineer — Geologist: "Under every old building in the old days was the entrance to the underground city. Even the place where we now stand — we are over the void. Sign here, in building college. Track them from the surface is not possible, the city was covered with asphalt shell, it was rebuilt many times, a lot of trenches, foundations, of course, destroyed the old system moves. But we can trace their existence over the crack in the facade. That is one reason for the deformation of the building may be the existence of the underground passage. Here, here is a building very noticeable characteristic is dipped one piece, as if he is above the void. And the brightest — the facade of the Cathedral of the Assumption — here the crack opening width of up to fifteen millimeters and even more. "

Important mission of Basil

Behind this door entrance to the underground Kharkov. Homeless man Basil says his housing office here specifically determined and responsible mission entrusted — kids not to start in the basement. What exactly is entrusted to guard, Basil knew vaguely.

Basil, a homeless person, "It's water, water of two houses, one at home and one at home. Sludge Depth — eighty centimeters.

During the rains the water almost fills the catacombs — traces of floods can be seen on the walls. Tunnels under the old opera house survived quite well, their length of about fifty yards, two intersections. Survived even the arch, which in the time of Peter the installed lighting. Historians say that it was Peter in the war against the Swedes Kharkiv fortress ordered to strengthen and build the catacombs under the city. Here's a stalactite grows no less than two hundred years. Another proof of the ancient dungeon — brick masonry.

Igor Denisenko, the historian: "In the eyes — not exactly the twentieth century. Rather, the end of the eighteenth — early nineteenth."

Bricks longer today, and besides, it is very fragile — to break a brick hit his hands, even a child can. Operate at depths dangerous. Almost every twenty meters obstruction, clear the course of cavers are not in a hurry. They say that if the earth clean — could collapse the entire body.

Yuri Ivanov, caver: On the surface, apparently, was a failure, and then he rammed. The references were in the thirteenth year about failures in the opera house. Air draft is very strong, apparently, this move leads to the Assumption Cathedral.

So what to do about it?

Catacombs exist, a new problem — how to use them. The options are many. The easiest — to destroy the underground. On this construction site catacombs filled with concrete. Build a house on a vacuum — it is dangerous.

The second option offers cavers — tourist route near Kharkov. At first only for professionals. Natural caves in this region is not present, train and compete urban cavers today under one of the bridges in the Sokolniki.

Special tourism, it is certainly not the most profitable. But cavers can get blockages, create a map of the dungeon, to ventilation, and that's when you can and earn, blowing Kharkiv under ordinary tourists.

Michael Rabinovich, an archaeologist, "clears a part of moves, they are covered ventilated, but closed the glass. And people who are interested can watch it through the glass.

Tourists! Forward in search of a legend! After caving, of course …

On what he has seen in the secret passages pardoned criminals spoke very little and reluctantly. It was possible to find out just what in the cave they found a large stone pillar around which there were twelve stone chairs and on the table lay an open book with the predictions of human lives …

01.07.2004

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