To replace Flaco: German anti-aircraft missile projects. Part I

By the end of the 30-ies of the last century in the minds of the military has become mature unpleasant assumption. The development of aviation in the growth rate and the potential impact sought special attention to air defense. At the same time, the existing anti-aircraft systems, particularly those who had to work on targets middle and high altitude, because of the very essence of their own had a number of problems. It was a low possibility of defeats the purpose of anti-aircraft shell fragments and, consequently, the need for multiple bursts. It eventually led to the fact that a huge amount of post-war anti-aircraft guns mnogokalibernyh projects were closed for futility. The fact is that to increase the maximum altitude at which the aircraft can defeat the goals required to increase the caliber of the projectile and charge. With all of this shell is bound to have a higher rate, but even high-grade projectile flying at the highest altitude so much that you have to take very great anticipation. In the end, it asks for even greater flow of shells than it was, for example, during the second World War.

Where great reliability could defeat the purpose to provide missiles, which in the end and drove mnogokalibernuyu flak. First projects in this area have begun to emerge in the late 30's and early 40's, but almost all of them were not able to get out of the testing phase. If you do not take the benign side of anti-aircraft missiles, and quantitative, then there must be separately mentioned projects of Nazi Germany, which until very own end was the favorite in the field of anti-aircraft missiles.


The first German anti-aircraft guided missile (SAM) was Wasserfall («Waterfall"). This project is a "close relative" of programs from V-2, and here's why: back in the early 40's chief designer of the "V-2" W. von Braun proposed to make on the basis of its anti-aircraft ballistic missiles. For this proposed use is very likely the number of available units, and the size and equipment to pick up in accordance with the zenith appointment. Push the latest idea could only in 1941 and soon after that management has approved a promising Germany project. The rest of the 41 th and a huge part of the 42-year German engineers izderzhali to develop a completely new type of weapon. The point was not easy — because the requirements for future air defense missile system was only approved November 2, 1942.

In place of "Flaco": German anti-aircraft missile projects.  Part I
Training launch missiles Wasserfall last modification in the test center Peenemunde in autumn 1944

It is interesting that the training requirements for the future SAM gave so many "side effects", which is actually development took even less time. First experienced the standards were ready in the middle of the 43rd. To reduce the time of creation of the project also impacted by the fact that von Braun suggested not to create a huge part of the modern design of the rocket from the ground up and take over an existing project base "V-2". Thus, except for some parts, Wasserfall represents twice the reduced copy rocket V-2. The total length of the first rocket in the first version was 7.92 meters, and the largest extension of stabilizers in all versions does not exceed 3 meters. In addition to size of the "Wasserfall" outside different from the "V-2" the presence of 4 small wings in the middle of the hull. As of early versions of the project was a trapezoidal wing with a straight front edge. It was relatively easy to manufacture, but blowing in the wind tunnel and a few test runs of models have shown that the direct wing is not enough for such a rocket. It was not enough strong and intensified the flight characteristics of the entire missile. Because the design of the wings will soon change: their area has become redundant with two times lower, and got hold of the edge sweep. After the completion of some missile body configurations almost did not undergo except certain configurations of the overall dimensions in different versions.

Where employees harder von Braun had to torment a rocket engine. Everyone knows the prepyadstviya engines "V-2" and the time will be needed to address them. So perhaps the main obstacle to the development of motors for Wasserfall was the interaction of fuel and tanks for him. The fact that the development of the then German rocketry sufficient draft for a suitable flow rate could only give a spontaneous ignition of fuel vapors. However, it was possible to use solid engine. And he had a drawback — the German military engineers and want to build a power plant with adjustable traction. There was only a hypergolic fuel rocket engine. Is noteworthy that the requirement to regulate traction outweighed toxicity and anger fuel. As the couple had chosen the fuel mix "vizol-salbay." "Vizol" was a vinyl isobutyl alcohol (450 kg tank), "salbay" — 98% hydrochloric acid. The last rocket was placed in the tanks and a half tons. These components provide the applicable characteristics of the fuel rods and fuel, but were very brutal: seasoned rocket could stand on duty only a few days. After that it was necessary to drain the fuel and send missiles to be recycled. Separately, it should be noted the power supply system motor fuel and the oxidant. Technical requirements for the rocket "Wasserfall" simply does not allow to enter into the design of the fuel pumps because von Braun and co-workers had to find another solution. It was very luxurious: between tanks for the oxidizer and fuel was a cylinder of compressed nitrogen is under pressure of about 200 atmospheres. In preparation for the launch operator of the complex had to command the supply of nitrogen: after pressing the appropriate button for special squib pierced the membrane tank and gas was supplied to the tanks, forcing them out of the fuel components. But the destruction of the membranes led to the fact that the launch was canceled unrealistic.

The warhead missile project Wasserfall had its composition from 90 to 100 pounds ammotola regardless of specific modifications. Explosive is intended for the creation of a shock wave also ready for spreading debris — iron balls. Undermining the warhead was planned to produce with 2 methods: by a team from the ground or by remote detonator. In the process of design work developing two versions of the latter: radar and infrared. Yet, in the process of testing was used only command option fuze.

In the end, a guidance system. Initially, it was planned that will be created semi-active radar system. Separate radar had to illuminate the target and missile equipment, taking the signal reflected from it, form the necessary commands to operate the machine. Automation has been without the help of others to delay the longitudinal axis of the rocket to the target area. However, even in the spring of the 45th year, this revolutionary new girl for as long as the system has not been completed yet. Designers von Braun had to do their guidance equipment. The system immediately introduced two radar: one for target illumination, the other — to track missiles. The data from both radars were displayed on one screen and the operator can immediately create two marks: the target and the rocket. With a semblance of
joystick operator tried to cooperate mark. Automation of complex ground without the help of others and make the necessary commands in an encrypted form to be sent to the missile. Equipment "Wasserfall", in turn, decrypts them and passed on the handlebars rocket. Rudders and control machines were in the tail end of the rocket, next to the engine compartment. Noteworthy that control machines were operated by compressed air — exactly the same reason that a rocket out fuel pumps.

First test launch Wasserfall was produced at the beginning of 1944. Then there were more than 40 start-ups, of which, according to the protocols of tests, only 14 were found to be successful. Difficulty on tests were not something unusual. All the problems manifested the fuel system and engine, all the difficulties with the guidance system, etc. more than once manifested on the other rocketry Third Reich. Yet, all of these problems did not prevent the continuation of the work on the first German air defense system. Before the end of the design and test work was produced three versions of the rocket under the names W-1, W-5 and W-10. Apart they differ size, and composition of the assembly equipment. The main points of the design for all that were similar. By the spring of '45, all systems have been tested and complex "Wasserfall" almost no any defects except those that were fundamentally ineradicable as it is impossible to cancel the start after a certain stage of preparation, brutal components of rocket fuel, etc. As of mid-1944 the German command still had pinned hopes to begin mass creation. Management of Nazi Germany intended to expand the order of two hundred cells, armed Wasserfall. Then the number of batteries needed to increment up to 300. But in spite of all the plans, Hitler coalition troops have taken matters into their own hands, and to the
start of series creating "Wasserfall" is not reached, although, as stated in some of captured documents, the project was ready for it.

In place of "Flaco": German anti-aircraft missile projects.  Part I

After the victory over Nazi Germany all the documentation on Wasserfall fell into Allied hands. Examining the drawings and paper technology, Russian designers have built an experimental missile R-101. Amerikosy, in turn, from the German W-10 A-1 did Hermes. Analysis of the German project and their own tests of P-101 and A-1 have shown that a complex of von Braun, though, is the revolutionary new, could not be considered promising. By the end of the 40's and South American, and Russian project were closed. Part of the developments was later used in other projects.

Technical properties:
Length — 6.13 m (W-10) to 7.92 m (W-1).
Span stabilizers — 1.6 m (W-10) to 2.88 m (W-1).
Takeoff weight — 3500 kg (W-1 and W-10), 3810 kg (W-5).
The highest rate — approx. 2,800 km / h
The highest altitude — 18,300 m
Warhead — 90-100 kg ammotola and finished pieces.

Hs-117 Schmetterling

Soon after Wernher von Braun thought the creation of a guided missile to destroy enemy aircraft "lit up" on the company Henschel. Report on the prospects of such technology and the approximate form of the upcoming project "Henschel" was presented Reyhsministerstvu aviation in 1941. But while the German leadership dominated conviction on full and final Advantages of the Luftwaffe in the air and start a real project not allowed. Yet, Henschel in an active manner continued to work on the newest theme. The project has received the title of Hs-117 Schmetterling («Butterfly"). Because of the lack of state support for the creation of "Butterflies" went tight — had to find means. But by the 43 th project was sufficiently alert, when about him in a moment remembered the military. Permanent Anglo-American bombing of objects in the deepest German rear very bothered Germans, well and made it difficult to increase production characteristics. In addition, by 1943 th on the eastern front there was a very nasty situation for the Germans: Russian Air Force of the Union after the frankly disastrous first months of the war were able to restore power to the middle of the war and become a real force to be reckoned with. It took some "vundervaffe" which will again take the lead in the air. As of the 1st of the options was elected to the project office, "Henschel".

In place of "Flaco": German anti-aircraft missile projects.  Part I
Hs 117 "Schmetterling" (exhibit at the State Museum of Air and Space USA)

Need to see, from the very beginning of the "Butterfly» Hs-117 is not quite like a rocket. This unit is still more like a plane. It was the length of the fuselage midwing about 4 meters and with a wingspan of about 2-meters. When one examines the Hs-117, at first glance lingers on the nose of this extraordinary machine. His conspicuous "double" form based on the fact that one half of the fairing is the warhead, and the other — an electronic oscillator with an impeller. Generator producing the required equipment for the rocket plane current.

Because at a certain stage of its own creation "Schmetterling" designers saw a missile, and then asked to use the engine, respectively. It was a liquid-fuel rocket engine that runs on fuel pair of "thin — nitric acid." Fuel "Tonka-250" was a mixture of xylidine and triethylamine in equal proportions. Just as in Wasserfall, Hs-fuel mixture 117 was hypergolic, allowing to simplify the structure significantly motor is also applied with the composition ratio of thrust and cause flow of the applicable values. At the same time, the LRE-aircraft missiles Hs-117 with sufficient thrust for flight performance is still not able to provide normal take-off and acceleration. Thus, the engine of BMW 109-558 gave cravings just 375 kgs, which was obviously not enough to take off 420-pound machine. Because start "Butterflies" was planned to produce with solid boosters. Supplying fuel and oxidant into the combustion chamber in order to save weight and internal volumes do not protect pumps and pressure CORDLESS represent a compressed air cylinder.

The warhead rocket plane Schmetterling had in its composition 22-pound charge ammotola and hundreds of ready-made debris. Still in the process of design engineers work office "Henschel" it became clear that the existing guidance systems simply can not provide such precision, in which 22 kilograms of explosives will be enough. I had to increment the charge up to 40 pounds. This allowed to rely on the satisfactory target engagement with affordable precision targeting. Fuze warhead "Schmetterling" is triggered by the command from the ground, but until the end of work undertaken to install on multiple samples Hs-117 radio controlled fuses.

In place of "Flaco": German anti-aircra
ft missile projects.  Part I

Guidance cruise missile air defense Hs-117 from the very beginning it was intended to produce only by commands from the ground. Initially the project as the main means of transmission of commands from the console to the missile was considered a wired channel. He allowed significantly reduce the cost of ammunition and electronics ground part of the complex. At the same time, the wire is very limited the highest range missiles and had a penchant for breakages. If the problem of a second can be relatively easy to solve in the future selection of material wire or its insulation, the increase sought a range of more leads and, as a result, significantly complicated the implementation of the complex and its reliability. Because in the first half of the 42 th designers "Henschel" still come to the radio command control system. Ultimately guidance has looked like this: operator, while at the controls, with the help of optical devices generates observation mission goals and Hs-117 also produces a course correction-aircraft missiles. Accordingly, the pointing accuracy directly dependent on the skill of the operator and the weather criterion, which was carried out in the fire of enemy aircraft.

In May 1944, anti-aircraft rocket Hs-117 Schmetterling went for tests. Just a month Henschel testers managed to hold almost 60 starts. Test results "Schmetterling" were significantly better test runs Wasserfall: emergency were little more than half of all start-ups. The results of these tests military government of Germany has concluded a huge prospects Hs-117 in comparison with the project "Wasserfall." Serial production of the newest missiles planned for December of the same 44th. But a number of problems of economic and productive disposition has permitted the creation of only cook subsequent to January 1945. Of course, in the criteria since the launch of the latest sophisticated equipment could only dream. In the end, necessary for the defense of Germany's 600 Battery "Schmetterling" and remained less than planned.

All the materials for the project Hs-117 got only Russian engineers. According to the German documents were collected several experimental devices under the name of P-105. Tests at the Kapustin Yar confirmed an advantage of "Butterflies" over other German anti-aircraft missile projects. But the prospects for her, according to the views of Russian engineers and military, was not. German production were taken into account, but the theme of anti-aircraft cruise missiles did not continue.

Technical properties:
Length — 4 m
The diameter of the fuselage — 0.33 m
Wingspan — 2 m
Starting weight (without accelerators / with accelerators) — 420/590 kg.
The greatest distance run with a 22-kg warhead — 32 km.
The greatest distance run with a 40-kg warhead — 12 km.
Maximum height of a lesion with a 22-kg warhead — 10.5 km.
Maximum height of the lesion with a 40-kg warhead — 5 km.
Speed after release accelerator — approx. 1,100 km / h
The speed with sustainer engine — approx. 900 km / h

According to the materials of websites:

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