The French are very delayed the creation of the third-generation tank
The tank was designed with the 1978 municipal concern GIAT Industries (at the current time Nexter), in cooperation with the firms of Germany. Four years later, due to a series of disagreements on technical cooperation was terminated. France from 1982 to independently continue to build the tank under the symbol EPC (Engin Principal de Combat). On January 30, 1986 instead of the abbreviation EPC tank received the title of "Leclerc» (Leclerc) in honor of Philip Marie Leclerc, an associate of General de Gaulle.
The main components and assemblies of the tank passed the tests and revision for 1982-1986 years, but then determine the type of suspension and OMS. By the end of 1986 have 6 prototypes. After the redesign of the tower, installation of additional sub-systems and making other improvements to the new tank, in general, began to answer the requirements of the French military. The assembly of an experimental batch began in 1989, and the present batch creation — in 1991. Due to fiscal constraints related in the main to the end of the cool war, the initial order — 1,400 tanks — was cut to 612, then to 406 cars.
The body and tower tank made of composite armor, which are used in an earthen materials and multilayer steel barrier. The sides of the body are covered protivokumulyativnymi screens, and in front of the hinged hinged to the same iron box width of 200 mm. This diversity Reservations covered front pair of rollers, idlers and the workplace of the driver. Small profile twin towers and the compact assembly have allowed not only to reduce the size and weight of the tank, and use it to increase its security. The main innovation was the modular design of armor protection. Its elements are mounted on the carrier frame box. It is believed that this will allow a substitute warped and riddled modules, repair tank in the field and to refine the criteria for a lifetime, mounting a new section with more effective protection.
In the development of the machine increased attention has been paid to enhance the protection of the roof of the tower, first of promising anti-tank weapons, striking the tank top. The creators say that "Leclerc" frontal part of the body is protected from the piercing shells in Gaza fired 30 degrees from the longitudinal axis is twice as effective than other cars of NATO.
To cancel the installation of dynamic protection is dictated by recognition of its dangerous to the equipment and a fighter who can hit in battle armor rushing to own a tank plate explosives.
The main armament used French 120-mm smoothbore gun CN 120-26 with a barrel length of 52 calibres. Ammunition interchangeable with other NATO smoothbore gun of the same caliber, but the French gun provides the core armor-piercing sabot feathered projectile initial velocity of 1,750 feet per second, significantly outperforming the "colleagues".
Automatic loader with a conveyor belt type shot a 22 unitary placed in a niche of the tower. Shots are located in the cells of the horizontal flow of assembly, located across the cannon, which is arranged in front of the breech delivery window. Automation is able to provide the technical rate of fire (without aiming and pickup) to 15 shots per minute. The effective rate of 10-12 rounds per minute with both places, and on the move. Equipment assembly cells flow is from the outside through the boot hatch in the aft wall of the tower or from the inside, with a gunner who can fill machine of combat pack — rotating drum to 18 shots, which is located in the building on the right of the driver. In all this there is no need to distribute ammunition by type, because the machine is provided with a reader that is connected to the microprocessor, the ability to recognize more than 5 types of ammunition.
Compartment gun and automatic loader separated from jobs commander and gunner tight walls. Closed compartment lowers the gun turret fumes when firing tank and eliminates the risk to fall under the breech when giving or on the go, when running a stabilizer and gun swinging in a vertical plane. Management tower drives conducted by means of a constant current of electric motors, more compact and economy in comparison with the hydraulics and Electrical hydraulic, from which they differ profitable to the same fire safety. In addition, their use can reduce the time needed to guns (turning 19-ton tower is 180 degrees for 5 seconds), improve accuracy, conduct secret surveillance and reduce to a minimum the impact of angular and linear movement of the tower chassis and arms. The angle of the cannon — plus 20 degrees declination — minus eight degrees.
As a subsidiary of weapons on a tank used twin 12.7-mm machine gun, serving also for zeroing in on short distances (up to 600 m of his bullets with shells have a similar line of motion). Second 7.62 mm mounted on the turret gunner's hatch at the top or the commander. He simply removed and can be used as a manual for self-defense.
In the aft turret mounted grenade launcher installation Galix, including two blocks of nine 80-mm grenade launchers, placed on the sides of the turret. Their ammunition includes four smoke grenades, creating at a distance of 30-50 meters Zahav in the visible and infrared range, two thermal trap is shot skyward to distract the anti-tank with thermal homing, and three anti-grenade weighing 5 kg. Any such pineapple gives the explosion on Sotk fragments within 15-30 meters around the tank.
Management Information System
In TIUS includes on-board computer, connected to the main aggregates of the tank and back-up ballistic computer, automatic electric control engine, gearbox, automatic loading, fire suppression system, inertial navigation system with the adjustment of the satellite complex "Navstar" system connection with the telephone and fax modes and pseudo-random configuration of the operating frequency, which protects against enemy electronic warfare. TIUS provides information on the whereabouts of the crew of the tank, good traffic routes, work units and units, consumption of ammunition and fuel, is receiving and transmitting disk imaging with other tanks and command Fri state machine and the tactical situation. All data are displayed in the form of alphanumeric characters, blanks and cards on color monitors. The defects change the situation and tell the crew voice voice informer, having the supplies in the memory 600 teams.
All the electrical system of the machine combined into a single network. Its core is a single digital data bus, which has 32 input channels. Connect to it and blocks MSA consisting of two-plane gun stabilizer, airborne automatic meteoposta, fixing atmospheric pressure, air temperature, wind speed and direction, periscope observation devices commander and gunner, commander panoramic sight rolling HL70 radial review and gyro-stabilized field of view, having Thermal and optical channels with 2,5 — and 10-fold increase, combined Gunner's HL60, which includes a laser range finder, a day optical channel with 3,3 — and 10-fold higher, day channel with a 10-fold increase and a night channel imager "Athos" (his image and drainage issues on the commander's
sight), muzzle viewfinder.
All elements of the computer controls the MSA with 2 microprocessors outstanding data and taking into account the amendments to the shooting, also controls the operation of nodes. Thanks to the speed of units MSA achieves readiness to fight in a minute after switching allows you to fire on the move over rough terrain at speeds up to 36 km per hour, and a place for one minute to hit 6 different purposes (other modern tanks — less than 3). The commander may continue to search for targets in the management of fire, passing them to the gunner's sight. With eight MSA linked commander periscope observation devices that provide radial view. I Gunner three of these devices, they are used not only for surveillance, and for aiming the gun. After finding the target with at least some part, by pressing a button on the device, you can deploy the tower and the gun in the direction of the band of sight.
To account for the crimps the barrel when heating system is intended to dynamically negotiate with the band aiming axis of the barrel. Low-power laser beam on the gun mantle result reflected by the mirror, mounted on the muzzle, and received a sensor on the tower. The data comes MSA, which assesses the care of the trunk and up for it.
For the modernization of
Leclerc main battle tank is manufactured with 1992 to 2006 year 3 groups, nekordinalno different from each other. 50 tanks 1 Series (best done 132 units) in 2010, retired French army and offered for export. The tanks of the 2nd series (178 units) were installed climate control system, additional side screens and improved cooling of the final drive.
Since 2004, the troops began to arrive tanks third series (or 2 +). They have advanced passive armor on the front and sides of the tower, superior commander and gunner's sights, which included the camera FLIR (infrared system front view) of the second generation of SAGEM, created for the detection of targets in all weather criteria, the system controls the fight Icone. The latter is the subsequent development of SIT-V1, ordered by the French Army in 2000 for armored AMX-10RC (6×6) and reconnaissance vehicles VBL (4×4) office Panhard. Tanks third of the series, in addition, equipped with a system of identification "friend or foe» (BIFF) firm Thales and changed the internal and external assembly units and accessories, located in the tower.
Seeking to maintain production capacity at the level of 110-120 tanks a year, the French looked for export orders. The agreement with the UAE was truly a lifesaver. Export deliveries outpaced even supplies for the French army. December 2, 1996 80 "Leclerc" defiled through the streets of Abu Dhabi during the parade. Overall, the UAE army received 436 vehicles: 388 line of tanks, two tanks for the training of drivers and 46 Atlet.
In order to improve the implementation capacity of the tank "Leclerc" during combat operations in populated Fri between 2006 and developed programm AZUR (Actions en Zone Urbaine). Studies have shown the need for a special set of equipment that can be mounted on a tank in field tests in a few hours. French military experts at concluded that the set of equipment should provide AZUR expanding the ability of defense and a counterattack in the criteria of external threats to the respective villages Fri, improve communication and interaction with fellow dismounted and attached units, increasing the ability observation and radial fire at short distances and great elevations, more nadezhnoe tylovoe providing dismounted units, the highest flexibility and adaptation of the tank assembly for a wide range of tasks in the peacekeeping operations and missions with high intensity warfare. Based on the above set of equipment for AZUR MBT "Leclerc" includes the installation of remotely controlled FNH ARROWS with 7.62-mm machine gun fire and the possibility of the old days and NIGHT MODE, equipment, improving surveillance and awareness of the situation, the enhanced protection of the sides and stern (additional side screens, bulwarks of new composite materials, bar armor around the entire rear of the machine, the additional protection of the roof of the engine compartment, etc.), devices that increase the survivability of the tank by frisky setting smoke and aerosol screens (expanding the ability of regular system GALIX the firing of 360 degrees ). In addition, provided for the protection of all the holes, depressions, and external "pockets", located in the hull and turret of a tank from falling flammable liquids as mechanical reinforcement of all external systems, parts, components of the tank to minimize the risk of failure on the part of an aggressive street crowds, etc.
The French Army had conducted studies in the framework of programs from AZUR at the demonstration swatch tank "Leclerc" in late 2006 — early 2007. The results of this research are included in the design of future sets of equipment.
The company GIAT Industries announced the planned modernization of the main directions of main battle tank "Leclerc". French military experts at the event is meant to perform until 2015, then the tank should fit the concept of BOA (Vulle Operationnelle Aeroterrestre). As a result of this upgrade is meant to make better tactical and main technical characteristics related to mobility, survivability, firepower abilities, management, communications and intelligence. Of the whole complex of the major listed survivability and fire power. For the growth of the first of these characteristics is planned to use the technology "Stealth", the elements of dynamic protection and use the facilities (operating on different principles) that destroy the rocket flies to the MBT and the shells of the enemy. To increase the ability of fire is planned to use the latest equipment setting goals and fire control system, which implies the possibility of firing indirect fire, as the launch of anti-tank through the barrel of a tank gun.