Acute renal failure

Acute renal failure

Acute renal failure (AKI) — it's quick, sharp termination of the kidney due to a heavy defeat most of the renal tissue.

Why did this happen

There are three groups of causes of acute renal failure:

  1. Prerenal: heart failure,shock, collapse, severe arrhythmias, a significant decrease in blood volume (eg, hemorrhage).
  2. Renal: more often — acute necrosis (death of) the renal tubules exposed to toxins, heavy metals, surrogate alcohol, drugs, or as a result of lack of blood supply to the kidney, at least — sharp glomerulonephritis, sharp tubulointerstitial nephritis, etc.
  3. Post-renal: acute bilateral ureteral obstruction due to urolithiasis.

What's going on

Are 4 phases or stages of acute renal failure.

  1. Signs of the first, initial phase depends on the cause of acute renal failure, but there is reduced amount of urine passed patients also reduced blood pressure, pulse quickens.
  2. In the second phase (oliguric)number urine decreased dramatically, often completely eliminated. The patient's condition is very serious. Affects virtually every system of the body. Characterized by profound metabolic disorders, directly threatening the life of the patient.
  3. In the third phase (recovery, poliuricheskoy)number urine increases, it becomes even greater than in normal conditions, but urine virtually nothing out of the body, except for water and salt, so in this phase are still many dangers to the patient's life.
  4. With a favorable course of the disease, and vigorous treatment of the allocation of the normal quantity and quality of urine is reduced, renal function gradually over 2-3 months of normal.


In addition to the characteristic clinical picture in the diagnosis stage and severity of acute renal failure is important determination of creatinine, urea and potassium in the blood, and the monitoring of urine output. If necessary, use ultrasound, radiographic, and radionuclide methods.


Treatment of acute renal failure is carried out in a hospital intensive care units. When vascular accidents, trauma patients are usually transported to the hospital immediately in case of poisoning of seeking medical treatment may be premature. Therefore, the slightest suspicion of the possibility of poisoning should make the patient and his family immediately seek medical help. In modern conditions of patients with acute renal failure was successfully maintained by the artificial kidney until there is a restoration of renal function.

In general, when time begun treatment in full prognosis is usually favorable.

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