Pilots before … impressive panorama unfolding ninety American warships, glittering in the morning rays of the Hawaiian sun. Hence, from a height of 10,000 feet, Pearl Harbor least resembled a formidable naval base; faster posh yacht club rovnenko series anchorages. Americans as if specially prepared to «visit» the Japanese — have placed the ships in geometrically correct order, threw open all the doors and hatches, abandoned torpedo nets — Castaway Pearl Harbor was considered completely immune to at least some of the enemy.
Admiral Kimmel … sweet stretched and rolled over. He walked along the wet road in an embrace with Hawaiian beauty, but around — Thud! Bam! — Funny knocked elastic drops of tropical rain. Bam! Bam! — The noise was becoming anxious and insistent. Hawaiian krosotka fluttered from the clutches of Admiral and without any traces of melted in a shroud of rain. Bam! Bam! Bam!
Kimmel opened his eyes and to his own surprise realized that annoying noise is heard quite of his dreams, and of the half-open window of a house. He immediately vyznat this sound — five-inch anti-aircraft guns firing 5 «/ 25. «What exercises on Sunday? I gave orders … «On the other side of the window something thundered, having expelled the sleep out of my head admiral. Admiral Kimmel arrow popped up on the porch and froze at the sight of surrealist paintings. Over glowing ships through wisps of dark smoke raced with Japanese aircraft identification marks. And amidst all this outrage was sleepy commander naval base at Pearl Harbor in a night robe.
December 7, 1941 Japanese deck-based aircraft killed the U.S. Pacific Fleet — the canonical phrase from school textbooks, backed by a strong Hollywood bestseller deeply seeped into the consciousness of the people. Nobody had not thought about the fact that the South American «Pacific Fleet» can only be killed along with the Pacific Ocean. As though what «fleet» of the U.S. Navy — this is just an area of responsibility with non-vehicular composition, created on a rotational basis.
In general, it is not even that. A more detailed introduction to the history of attack on Pearl Harbor, gives quite the opposite picture. Lofty operation in the history of Japanese carrier-based aircraft actually ceases bestalantno planned and carried out so as bestalantno attack. Only South American criminal negligence command aggravate inadequate training crews of the U.S. Navy, has allowed residents of the country of the rising sun to avoid a catastrophe and implement at least part of their plans.
Japanese carriers failed job. Even without the industrial potential of America, capable of times a day to take the Navy destroyer one newcomer, the results of the Japanese raid looked over controversial.
Japanese carriers on course to Pearl Harbor. On the frontal plane flight deck «Zuikaku» looming in the distance «Kaga»
Everyone knows that at Pearl Harbor died battleship «Arizona», but not many people thought about the fact that it was for the ship. In fact, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun sank Rusted bucket WWI, Launched in 1915. At Pearl Harbor on the day there were no new battleships! The «youngest» of battleships was launched in 1921, and the oldest dreadnought «Utah» — in 1909 (by that time the Yankees was used as a radio-controlled target ship).
But all this nonsense, compared with the fact that Pearl Harbor was naikrupneyshim filling station of the U.S. Navy in the Pacific — an oil storage capacity of 4.5 million barrels of oil. Liquidation of the strategic facility could absolutely immobilize South American fleet in the Pacific. For comparison — oil supplies in Hawaii were all Japanese are the supplies of oil! Follow-up showed clear: it was necessary to damage the filling station at any cost. Harm would be greater than the sinking of ships in Pearl Harbor.
What a shame it did not sound Japanese pilots sent all their rage against «linkornogo series» — 7 flabby American pelvis moored along Ford Island. As kids, fair word.
Not counting oil tanks on the ground of the U.S. naval base was still a number of tempting targets remained intact — for example, a huge dry dock 10/10 and located near the mechanical shops. All are residents of the country of the rising sun gave the U.S. Navy — in the end, when the harbor still circling planes second wave, the Americans have already started the repair work. Hospitals, marinas, storage of ammunition — all the infrastructure base remained intact!
Six months later, it will be fatal circumstance — with the help of the surviving docks, cranes and mechanical workshops Pearl Harbor Americans have time warped back to the Coral Sea aircraft carrier «Yorktown» and inflict a decisive blow at Midway.
Fortune disguised tragedy
Total of about 90 anchored warships of the U.S. Navy, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun managed to sink or seriously break 10, including:
5 battleships (in parentheses — launch year):
— «Arizona» (1915) — the explosion of the powder magazine, the ship was absolutely destroyed. Killed 1177 people — the largest tragedy in the history of the South American fleet.
— «Oklahoma» (1914) — overturned after hitting 9 torpedoes, raised in November 1943, because of the severity of damage was not restored. Sank in the ocean 500 miles from Hawaii while towing on a breaker in 1947.
— «Nevada» (1914) — multiple injuries from bombs, one torpedo hit. To avoid flooding the ship aground. All in all — inexpensive otvertelsya. After two months was refloated and returned to service after repairs in October 1942. Troopers maintained fire during landing in Normandy. Survived two atomic explosions at Bikini Atoll.
— «California» (1919) — hit bombs and 2-torpedoes. After three attacks a day or after flooding has become irreversible character and «California» lay on the bottom of the bay. Was raised in four months, returned to action after repairs in January 1944. Battleship had survived the war and was scrapped in 1960.
— «West Virginia» (1921) — nine torpedoes and two bombs had done their work, the burning battleship sank on its own parking lot. Was raised in May next year, restored by July 1944.
Smoke a lot, the good is not enough
As residents of the country of the rising sun managed to destroy three destroyers, mine layer and target ship:
— «Cassini» and «Downs» — completely destroyed in a fire at the dock. Purely out of principle were restored in 1944. With the surviving victims of the fire filmed mechanisms by setting them in a new package.
— «Show» — the explosion of artillery cellars in the fore body. Despite the nose of the dumps, crawled under its own power to San Francisco. Already in August 1942, returned after repair at Pearl Harbor.
— minelayer «Oglala» (1907) — at the time of the Japanese attack was moored to the left side of the cruiser «Helena.» One of the outstanding torpedo passed underneath «Oglala» and hit «Helena» explosion damaged both ships. «Helena» remained afloat, and «Oglala» nahlebalsya water and lay on the bottom right at the pier, raised in 1942, restored and returned to duty.
— radio-controlled target ship «Utah», last Dreadnought (1909) — until now lies on the days of Pearl Harbor.
Astute readers have probably noted that the list of bad losses can limit the «Arizona» and «Oklahoma.» All other ships, except for «Utah», and returned to duty. Dispute about burnt by destroyers and sunk ships target does not make sense because of inconsistencies in dispute scale attack on Pearl Harbor. South American loss look like a mockery of the plans of Admiral Yamamoto.
Another eight warships received moderate damage, among them:
— battleships «Tennessee» (1919), «Maryland» (1920), «Pennsylvania» (1915)
In «Tennessee» hit two bombs and burning the oil spilled from the battleship «Arizona» charred paint on the stern of the battleship. Damage were absolutely eliminated by March 1942.
«Maryland» also received two bomb hits, but otvertelsya relatively easy. Of the entire crew died only 4 mariner repairs completed in February 1942.
Battleship «Pennsylvania» hid from Japanese torpedoes in dry dock and, in general, also had survived plaque. Exploding ammunition standing near destroyers «Cassin» and «Downs» battleship caused only cosmetic damage (yet killing 29 of the crew «Pennsylvania»). Damage were absolutely phased out by April 1942.
«V. Virginia » swallowed Japanese torpedoes and lay down on the ground. «Tennessee» covered himself by Japanese torpedoes and sistership own body remained intact.
Three cruisers were damaged:
— previously mentioned «Helena» (1939); in one torpedo hit the ship, repair completed at the shipyards in California first in 1942.
— old cruiser «Reilly» (1922) — got into the side of a torpedo, but remained afloat and knocked down 5 Japanese bombers. Damage repaired by December 22, 1941.
— cruiser «Honolulu» (1937) — from bombs close the gap opened to flow into the underwater hull. The crew had no losses. Repair ended on the same day.
In addition, damage to the:
— new seaplane base «Curtiss» (1940), which fell downed Japanese aircraft. A few minutes later again under attack bombers. The result — torn crane, 19 dead. Repairs completed February 13, 1942.
— floating workshop «Vestal» (1908) with the start of the raid hurried to throw on saves. Was damaged in the explosion of the battleship «Arizona», renovated in August 1942 to be used intensively in the Pacific: the war years had warped critical care 58 ships.
So magnificent result: a total of 18 ships from 90 warped present in this moment in the harbor of Pearl Harbor explained vile coordination Japanese attack, multiplied by the blind rage of Japanese pilots, selects only the big contrasting and, as they thought, the principal purpose. As a result, part of battleships received 9 torpedoes, while as other ships and infrastructure base remained intact. For example, not a bomb fell on the submarine base, but the pilots chose another «important» target — an old dreadnought (ship-to-target) «Utah» with removed head towers caliber. Residents of the country of the rising sun seemed like a … carrier.
Depth in the bay area «linkornogo series» almost as high as 10 meters, the tower and superstructure sunken battleships evict freely above the water surface. All this has allowed a short period to lift virtually all «sunk» ships and bring them back into operation before the end of the war.
Moreover, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun in a sense, «played into the hands of» the Yankees — during repair all ships have been warped immense modernization, which included the substitution of the entire anti-aircraft artillery and fire control system upgrades. «West Virginia» lost grid mainmast on «Nevada» completely rebuilt nose superstructure and ancient «California» so changed on the outside and inside, her silhouette was like a silhouette of the latest battleships of «South Dakota.»
By the way, these battleships peers do not fall under the Japanese air strike so deep modernization had not gone to the end of the war gave way to combat the devil its totality «flushed» brethren.
In the end, a purely military point of view, the irreparable loss of 2-and temporary loss of 6 battleships not affected the combat capabilities of the U.S. Navy. By the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor as part of the South American Navy had 17 battleships! And during the enforced absence of «sunken battleships» Americans have built eight more much more severe «Iowa» and «South Dakotas.»
And the most fascinating — even without the intervention of the Japanese still had no ability to use the old battleships until 1943. All ships of the line, designed by the First World had one big drawback — they were very slow moving. Deceased «Arizona» just developed 21 knots — too little to support modern aircraft carriers. A release into the ocean obsolete battleship without fighter cover was tantamount to suicide.
By dramatic fate, by the time the repairs of damaged battleships appeared suitable for their task — liquidation Japanese defensive perimeter in the Pacific Islands. Died down most of the sea battles, the Yankees took full command of the sea and in the air. Now only required to shell fragments occupied by the Japanese sushi, slowly moving from atoll to atoll. This is where it just needs «California», «Tennessee», «West Virginia» and «Maryland».
In general, these old ships fell a good chance to get even with the Japanese for Pearl Harbor — on the night of October 25, 1944 «veterans» were shot in the Strait Sugarov Japanese battleship «Yamashiro».
Inconspicuous background Japanese failure
Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, received the first reports on the results of the raid on Pearl Harbor, was furious. Notwithstanding the general jubilation supported Japanese propaganda, he realized that «stun attack» did not work. Several of old battleships sunk, all other ships and base survived.
Admiral Yamamoto planned to lose half of its pilots, but all spread on the peninsula. Last Japanese aircraft from the «second wave» of landing on an aircraft carrier in a day or an hour — at this point the aircraft «first wave» were already primed again, re-armed and ready for a combat mission. Young hot pilots eager to fight. In Pearl Harbor had a huge number of policy objectives. Why was not suffered another kick!
What a shame it did not sound, specifically the operation commander, Rear Admiral Nagumo Tyuiti from repeating strike refused. And, as it turns out, he has this been enough valid grounds.
In the first attack Minutka South American gunners showed their complete incompetent — from 32 coastal anti-aircraft batteries were able to open fire only eight. Shooting, hit and miss, low-flying aircraft they caused more harm to their base, than residents of the country of the rising sun. On one of the streets of the Pearl Harbor anti-aircraft projectile child was killed.
Ships in the harbor also opened a rare anti-aircraft fire, but their position was complicated by the lack of anti-aircraft ammunition — to prevent sabotage and unfortunate cases, cellars were tightly locked. And keys, as always, proved hard to find.
As a result — the «first wave» deck aircraft lost a total of nine aircraft.
By the time of the «second wave» keys of artillery cellars have been found, Admiral Kimmel was awakened, and base personnel arrived at their battle stations under combat schedule. As a result, residents of the country of the rising sun have lost twice as many planes — 20 cars.
Common loss amounted to 29 aircraft and 56 pilots, and another 74 aircraft had returned from injury and could not recently up in the air — a third of all vehicles involved in the operation of the system was eliminated!
New blow would have been greeted with more concentrated anti-aircraft fire and a huge number of fighters (in the first raid in the air had to climb a few American cars, shot down seven Japanese planes), which would entail a new, even more big loss. Despite the angry strikes on airfields, the Yankees have probably survived torpedo bombers and land-based. And in some places close to two U.S. aircraft carrier — in the case of the Japanese fleet, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun would have been enough in an unsafe position.
Therefore acted wisely Tewitt Nagumo — turned their aircraft carriers and full swing left a terrible area.
Number of dry statistics inexorably show — during the attack on Pearl Harbor killed 2,400 military and civilian officials, only 0.5% of all human losses in the U.S. 2nd World War. That’s a lot, and once, not much. It is still less than the number of victims of the September 11 attacks. Real harm from the Japanese attack proved too small.
But why Americans stubbornly replicate the tale of his own «great public tragedy»?
The answer seems natural to me: it is a blow to America was like a gift. America expected war with Japan and the attack of Pearl Harbor was the best occasion. Everything came out even better than waiting for the Americans — Japanese admirals and marine pilots were on the uniqueness of something quite naive and unprofessional. With barely concealing a smirk, Americans have accepted the challenge and began furiously chop the Japanese army and navy. Victory was only a matter of time.
At the moment, there is nothing better than to tell the beautiful legend about his «first defeat in the battle dishonest» and following their own «fair revenge.» How differently — without the «defeat in battle dishonest» legend will lose its charm. It only remains ruthless truth of life — Americans «divorced» Japanese a hassle, and eventually became hegemonic in the Pacific.
Oleg created Kaptsov
source of Military Review