Scientists will distinguish their willingness to erupt on infrasound
Many still remember how in April 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull paralyzed air travel in Europe. Now scientists want to avoid such collapses. And going to identify with a lot of volcanic ash and timely warn aviapilotov. After all, volcanoes ash clouds reach heights which flew passenger planes. And emissions can easily lead to serious engine damage.
A team of U.S. researchers led by Professor Florida Institute of Technology professor Fredrik Ham and the University of Hawaii at Manoa Milton Garcés, with financial support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) plans to prevent this, reports science.compulenta.ru.
Scientists suggest using infrasound signatures — characteristics of the eruption of sound, inaccessible to the human ear — which vary depending on the type of volcano. Of greatest interest to this work are supervolcanoes and stratovolcanoes, which is inherent in the so-called Plinian eruption. It is distinguished by a powerful explosive emission of magma with massive columns of ash, representing the most significant threat to air travel.
Experts studied several volcanoes in the United States, Latin America and the Pacific. The data collected will be used for the "coaching" of the system of classification of infrasonic signatures based on artificial neural networks.
In addition to the volcano, the technology can be applied to other natural disasters — earthquakes, tsunamis, avalanches, meteorites and swirl in the atmosphere.
Americans took time for much needed work vedt, according to some projections, in 2012, once all the volcanoes can wake up — read the "KP" here. Recently, researchers from the universities here in Sydney, Bergen and Hawaii alerted the world that is a strange pulse of the subsoil. It turned out that in the history of the world there have been periods when the time erupted almost all the volcanoes on it. And there comes a living hell. End of the world for the creatures that lived while on earth. Although someone survived. And life, albeit in a different form, but continued. What is the confirmation. On the one hand: the bones of dinosaurs — those who lived up to one of the massive eruptions. On the other: a diverse creatures, including us. That is, those who live for after — waiting for the next disaster.
According to experts, the global eruption started 10, 22, 30, 40, 49 and 60 million years ago. That is roughly every 10 million years. And among them was restless: volcanic activity increases strongly 4, 15, 34, 45 and 65 million years ago. Duration of second period was 5 million years. It is a just and got dinosaurs that ended his era 65 million years ago.
And we are facing even more powerful disaster — from the front row. After 10 million years either already passed, or are about to pass. Maybe X hour in 2012, and will come. The strongest suspicion is now Mount St. Helens — an active volcano. Located in the western U.S.. Under the mountain are huge cavities of molten rock, which run in one direction for 50 kilometers to another — by 70. A relatively narrow channel, which now comes from the bowels of the volcano, joined by several more. It is possible that the system extends to the lava-covered Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, Montana, Idaho), which is the largest, but the extinct volcano of the continent — the so-called Yellowstone caldera. And smaller counterparts. If all channels will work once you get the monstrous crater with a diameter of several tens of kilometers. And burst into eruption of unprecedented power.
In the "great extinction" blame volcanoes on Earth
Found 20,000 remains the largest disaster in the world.
Incredible finds the number of 20 000 fossils including plants, carnivorous fish and large reptiles, were found on a hillside in Lyuopinge, south-west China. As it turned out, the remains of ancient marine ecosystem, which ceased to exist because of the most devastating mass extinction event in the history of the Earth. Among the well-preserved remains found clams, sea urchins and arthropods, as well as much larger animals that occupied the top of the food chain, such as carnivorous fish and the first ichthyosaur, predatory marine reptiles that grow to four meters in length. Found among the remains of the rare pieces of land living creatures that survived the same period, including part of a coniferous tree and even tooth reptilian archosaurs.
Fossils have been excavated from the rocks that were formed when the sediment in the ocean and sank solidified millions of years ago in the place of what is now the province of Lyuoping China Yunnan. Over 4.5 billion years of Earth history, occurred several mass extinctions, but what happened at the end of the Permian period is unrivaled in scale. Lost 96% of marine species and 70% of the land in the course of events, known as the "great extinction".
What caused this global catastrophe is still the subject of debate, but Michael Benton, a paleontologist at the University of Bristol, who led the latest study, said the findings indicate the duration and intensity of the eruption of the Siberian Traps, a large region of volcanic rock. Under this scenario, the massive eruption caused climate catastrophe, releasing huge amounts of gas to the atmosphere for half a million years, writes globalscience.ru.