Human papillomavirus infection (PVI) of the genitalia refers to diseases that are transmitted through sexual contact. It occurs often enough: according to the World Health Organization for the past ten years the number of cases has increased more than ten-fold, and 23.5% of the population of the earth.
How does HPV infection? How dangerous is it and how is it treated? For clarification, we turned to the obstetrician-gynecologist medical center "of the world" Alexander V. Azarov.
— Alexander V., so what this virus is dangerous, and what might be the consequences of infection?
— Human papilloma virus can cause benign, some types (eg 16 and 18) can initiate the development of malignancies.
— And how the disease manifests itself? Can a man find himself at his attributes?
— Sometimes yes, sometimes no. There are two forms of IMC: first — genital warts, the second — flat warts. Genital warts are a fibroepithelial education (on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes) on a thin stem, at least — on a broad basis. This can be a single nodule or multiple growths that resemble a cauliflower or a rooster combs. Flat warts usually located in the thickness of the epithelium and practically invisible to the naked eye.
Localization of genital warts can be different, first of all this: the labia, vagina, cervix, urethra, mouth, clitoris, anus area and the surrounding skin.
The incubation period of the disease ranges from 1 to 12 months, with an average of 3 months.
— Tell me, please, what the survey should take the patient in order to diagnose the presence of IMC?
First of all, it is, of course, colposcopy — a highly informative and inexpensive method for early diagnosis of cervical disease, without which is impossible to imagine a survey women with gynecological pathology. The most popular of its kind is extended colposcopy, which includes the inspection and audit of the state of the mucous membrane of the cervix, vagina and vulva with an increase in the microscope at 7-30 times and the use of some epithelial tests to evaluate the tissue response to the treatment of a variety of drugs.
There is also a histological diagnostic method that could serve as the "gold standard" diagnosis of IMC, but the high cost, the inability to use multiple times, and not always accurate sighting fence material limit its use. For biopsy of the cervix, there are certain indications, but practice shows that it is better to make a biopsy followed by histological examination than to underestimate the seriousness of the process and later carry out the procedure. The histological method also can not be considered a screening, it is used in clinical practice only during the final diagnosis.
The third method of diagnosis of human papillomavirus infection — molecular biology — PCR diagnostics (PCR — polymerase chain reaction). In 95-100% of cases, it allows you to determine the presence of HPV types vysokoonkogennyh.
— Could you tell us what is possible cures PVI, and whether to treat both partners?
This is a very valid question. Warts patients should be warned that the TSA refers to infections and sexually transmitted. It is therefore necessary to examine and treat both partners, and the period of therapy and for six months after it appropriate to recommend the barrier contraception with a condom.
Treatment of Warts conducted in accordance with their location, the nature of the process (the presence or absence of dysplasia) and associated with the disease. In the presence of infection should be conducted its reorganization. All kinds of local treatment should be aimed at removing warts and atypical epithelial changes. For these purposes, use different types of chemical coagulants, cytotoxic therapy and fiziohirurgicheskie techniques such as cryo-, electro-and laser therapy, as well as traditional surgical excision. The latter method is preferred for the treatment of cervical lesions.
— Is there any way to prevent the emergence and development of genital HPV infection?
— Yes. It is now established preventive vaccines against strains of HPV that are most often associated with the development of malignancies (especially against types 16 and 18). They are used in the United States, Canada, the EU, Russia (over 50 countries). Received and accumulated in the current data allow us to consider vaccination as a very real way to fight cervical cancer.