Celestial relatives Katyusha

Celestial relatives Katyusha

Japanese pilot"Under the wings of Russian aircraft I beheld flares"

About Russian achievements in the field of rocket and artillery equipment vyznat world in the first week of stateliness Russian war. Then shots of our ground multiple rocket systems on the positions of the Nazis heralded the birth of a new stern guns, which the Red Army soon gave a gentle name — Katyusha.

But not enough who knows that the shells, which hits the enemy guards mortar units at the front, were made on the basis of aircraft rockets, applied even during the conflict in the Halkin-Gol. So they developed the same design team. In general, aircraft, namely the famous Il-2, kitted aircraft missile weapons, has played an important role in the Russian counter-offensive at the Battle of Moscow, the 70th anniversary of which we celebrate today's year.

Introducing the new product

Let us, but to the events that took place a couple of years before the disaster and the heroic 1941.

At one point, a special purpose fighter squadron which was based near located 120 kilometers north-east of Moscow, the old Russian town Pereslavl, he entered I-14 — the first Russian combat vehicle with a retractable landing gear, made Tupolev and PO Sukhoi. For long it was really good plane. And to arm it at that time generally superior to virtually all serial fighters — both Russian and foreign. After all they had on board only two, maximum of four machine guns, while I-14 was carrying two guns dinamoreaktivny APK-11 and a pair of machine guns ShKAS.

Experienced car Zvonarev Nicholas, who graduated in 1932, the Odessa school of military pilots. In this case, about the most important aircraft weapons did not apply — to whom it should be, he knew. His fighter could bring to bear additional, entirely new combat vehicle. Under the wings of I-14 has eight sharp-nosed missiles, the silhouette of which remotely resembled carnivorous pike. Obviously, the pilot still on the ground closely acquainted with the system of their start-up located in the cab. And rising in the sky, after pressing the start button did not feel anything. It appears, from the start of missiles plane did not even shudder. "Come on, let's go!" — Exclaimed Zvonarev.

So an acquaintance pilot a rocket-air armament. During the first flight with a live-fire followed by the second, third …

"Report on the use of rockets in Khalkhin-stamped" Top Secret "in Moscow have read only a few"

November 20, 1937 the squadron commander of the special Nicholas Zvonareva moved on scientific testing ground aircraft armament, which was appointed commander of the detachment. He personally tested different guns and machine guns on different planes: a moderate P-5, I-16 fast, maneuverable I-15.

Most of all, Nikolai Ivanovich had to work with eresami — rockets (MS). While the cigar-shaped body 82 mm rockets could behold beneath the wings of I-16, the larger 132-mm — under the planes P-5 and high-speed bombers Sat The main tests of rocket guns were 30 seventh fall near Kiev in the 65th Aviation Squadron, commanded by 26-year-old hero of Russian Union of Major Paul Levers. When they successfully completed in Moscow decided to equip the PC fighters. His results confirmed the correctness of the firing of rockets from just made pilot production batch.

A special group

At the end of May 1939 the commander of the aviation unit for testing missile weapons Captain Nicholas Zvonareva urgently summoned to the People's Commissar of Defense Voroshilov. After reading the good performance appraisal pilot, Kliment said

— How do you, Nikolai Ivanovich, look at the opportunity to take part in the fighting?

— In which, Comrade Marshal Russian Union?

— We wish to make a small group of the most experienced volunteer pilots and ship it to Mongolia. Command of charge for you to think. Pick the best four pilots and report back to me.

After discussing with the commander of the regiment each candidate, Zvonarev suspended own choices in senior lieutenants ST Pimenov, IA Mikhaylenko, VI Fedosov and G. Tkachenko.

Celestial relatives Katyusha5 minutes before the appointed time the whole group was at the door of a spacious office Commissar of Defense. Voroshilov cordially shook hands with each hand and said: "The leadership sets the tremendous value of missiles that has a great future. That's what we want to experience it in battles with the Japanese. All you need to do so that the tests were successful for us, and the samurai did not know about it. Because for you to not only forbidden to fly into enemy terrain, but even shoot in that direction during air battles near the border. "

Voroshilov then explained that in Chita team captain Zvonareva be made available to the commander of the 2nd rank Stern. Air Command organized a strong group of cover during the fighting. Concluding the conversation, the People's Commissar of the recommended pilots make each air battle something new to discover strengths and feeble hand of a new instrument.

Of early afternoon from the station Alexandrov went lettered train with passenger carriages and freight platforms. The train en route to the east, riding a special group Zvonareva, which apart from him were four pilots and special on missiles — Military Engineer 2nd rank Popovich and military technician 1st rank Gubin. On the platforms were carefully hidden from outside views 6-16 fighters with missile weapons of the first production batch.

At the headquarters of the Trans-Baikal Military Area Commander Zvonareva took the front of Gregory Stern, a veteran of the war in Spain (by the way, the commander of the 2nd rank — the third after the marshal in the system of military ranks since then). He carefully told the captain of the military-political situation. After the occupation of Manchuria and parts of China the Japanese military was constantly organize armed provocations on the borders with the Tatar People's Republic of China, which in 1936 the Soviet Union signed a contract on mutual aid. Anti-Soviet policy of brutal land of the rising sun in English, French, and especially South American municipal officials. They had hoped that the war between the USSR and Japan mutually weaken both countries also distract from the Japanese militarists military and economic penetration in the countries of Southeast Asia.

In the spring of 1939, continued to Gregory M., Kwantung Army Headquarters has developed a plan to capture part of the area east of the Mongolian People's Republic Halkin-Gol. Goals were harsh: the fight to check the position of Russian Union prepared by the Red Army and seize a bridgehead for subsequent brutal actions.

Military action began May 15, 1939 with the Japanese air raid on the position of the border guards of the Tatar People's Revolutionary Army. Day of May 28 the Japanese squad (over 2,500 people) with artillery and armored vehicles with air support stormed the Soviet-Mongolian troops on the right bank of the river Halkin-Gol.

During June, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun bringing up reinforcements and July 2 large forces fled again in coming, crossed the Halkin-Gol and captured Mount Bayan-IDF. But the massive hit Russian tanks and infant
ry, artillery and air strikes to July 5 opponents managed to tilt backwards.

By the beginning of the conflict in Mongolia was mixed Brigade as part of the 70th Fighter and 150th Bomber mixed regiments. With all of this second-pilots have not yet mastered their SB. As for the pilots of the first, then they flew on I-16 of the first series with 2 machine guns and more obsolete I-15. Vpribavok earlier in heaven is not a lot podymali, besides serviceable machines was less than half. According to Stern, our first aircraft suffered tremendous loss. But in June and July the situation had improved somewhat.

At the meeting, the commander of the General Staff presented the present Russian Union of Hero Corps Commander James Smushkevich in nedavneshnem last known "General Douglas' head of aviation adviser to Republican Spain. Specifically, he led the Soviet air force in the fight against the Japanese air force in the skies of Mongolia. "In addition, from Moscow to us focused Zvonarev captain with a special group of fighters armed with rockets — continued Stern. — We need to do all the conditions for its successful combat operations. "

Group Zvonareva was oriented in the 22 th Fighter Regiment, commanded by Hero of the Russian Union of Major Gregory Kravchenko (later re-awarded this highest rank). With Gregory PANTELEEVICH Zvonarev captain was perfectly familiar: they served together in a special squadron.

Kravchenko, who had returned from China May 29, 1939 summoned to the Kremlin. There he met a lot of friends — all pilots with combat experience who fought in Spain. On the same day with the Metropolitan Central airfield on 3 military transport planes flew to Mongolia 48 pilots, engineers and technicians, among them 21 Hero of the Russian Union.

Major Kravchenko gave serious mandate captain Zvonareva: in cars, filled with new missile weapons in the fight to not get involved. Gave volley missiles and go. In turn, Kravchenko previously received a warning from Smushkevich: "If one group of plane Zvonareva lost — take off your head!".

August 16th all 5 special group of fighters flown to the landing pad near the band edge, where were carried out combat missions.

Volleys PC

In the middle of August 30 Ninth Japanese command received a report was during air combat fighter of the Imperial Russian Air Force were fired anti-aircraft artillery. However, visual observation of pilots and aerial photographs showed that in this area there are no air defense guns. A lieutenant, who took part in that battle, told: "Under the wings of Russian aircraft I beheld the flash of flame."

In the Japanese headquarters of breaking open the head: what kind of weapon used Russian pilots in the sky over Halkin-Gol? There were all kinds of speculation. Most of them came down to one thing — the Bolsheviks used a completely new combat vehicle.

The hypothesis was correct. In the air battles in Mongolia successfully participated first in the world group of fighters armed with rockets. Obviously, then nothing about this reported or "True" or "News" or "Red Star". A detailed report on the use of rockets in the conflict in Khalkhin-stamped "Top Secret" in Moscow have read only a few.

The Japanese military all materials contained concluded that the destruction caused by the 76-mm artillery shells, urgently sent to Tokyo. But there spetsy taken very skeptical of the ability to use air guns designated caliber. After all, according to the calculations came out: no modern aircraft will not sustain itself recoil guns. Even an ally of the rising sun — Germany was not so severe air guns. And where, they say, to compete with the Russian at the technical level of developed countries in Europe …

Meanwhile, the advent of the Soviet-Mongolian troops on the ground and developed successfully. By late August, the Japanese group on the right bank Halkin-Gol was one hundred percent destroyed. But fighting in the sky lasted as before. After each flight, ends with a meeting with the enemy, engineer Popovich carefully inquired about the action of the pilots missiles, all seen the shortcomings.

One of the aerial battles with the role Zvonareva took place on August 30. Successfully by the time, the pilot gave a volley rockets on a dense group of Japanese fighters. From all sides attacked the enemy planes red stars machine. Russian aviation losses had not.

Pockets of resistance surrounded by Japanese troops on the ground were quite Tatar suppressed August 31. But in September, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun tried to take revenge in the air. For the first 14 days of the month they had lost in battle 51 car (our — 12 in total). The latest battle in the Tartar sky not only for the group Zvonareva, and for all Russian pilots became dogfight erupted Sept. 15, 1939. And on the following day, September 16 in Moscow armistice was signed …

On the occasion of the victorious end of the war and a symbol of gratitude to the Russian pilots Tatar manager Choibalsang invited to a banquet, and Kravchenko Zvonareva. But neither they nor the other pilots and technicians particular group did not think at the time that they had the honor of the first in the world to use advanced missiles in air combat. They opened the newest page in the history of the gun.

Instead of an epilogue

After returning from Mongolia Nicholas Zvonarev, received the rank of Major General and was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, returned to work, a test pilot. He went after it and got started majestic Russian. Nikolai Ivanovich gave a new lease of life fighters and bombers. After all, these cars were so necessary to the war!

Nikolai Ivanovich had a chance to "tame" and the Me-110, purchased in Germany before the war. About this newspaper fighter Third Reich wrote as "the king of the air." But our Yak-1, concluded Zvonarev or what is not inferior vaunted "Messer". A MiG speed and altitude significantly superior to a German car.

Immediately Zvonarev participated in the continuation of the test aircraft missiles. At the end of September 1941, he even had to show our missiles British military mission. Increased attention of visitors lured ilyushinskie famous Il-2 and Missiles. Then the British have shown how it is in reality. The effect is eclipsed all expectations.

During the Battle of the Metropolitan Russian military command has received the first big experience with the aircraft in offensive operations. Played a huge role "Elah", equipped by not only the gun-bomb armament, but guns and rocket RO-82 to launch missiles RS-82. Here's an episode of a show. Exclusively in one day, December 14, the pilots of the 6th Fighter Aviation Corps completed 531 battle sortie. With all this, they used 146 times eresy. In the course of the retreating enemy air attacks at the turn of Volokolamsk — Teryaeva Sloboda our pilots are killed and disabled the seven tanks, 363 vehicles, a large number of other military equipment, and a large number of the enemy. Thus far this example is not unique.

Acquired in the course of December the Moscow counteroffensive experience of combat aircraft with the introduction of the above-mentioned arms served as the basis for the establishment and future development strategy of attack aircraft during operations following a huge Russian majestically. He also concelebrated in good stead for the development and testing of new models of air-launched missiles are not only in the military, and in the post-war period.

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