Acute rhinitis — an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose band is caused by a variety of reasons. The most common form of infectious rhinitis, popularly called a cold. The disease is widespread in both children and adults. Coryza with unfavorable circumstances can become chronic, which has a more prolonged course.
Infectious agents can act viruses (adenovirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, etc.), at least — bacteria and fungi. Typically, a bacterial infection is said about the transition to chronic rhinitis.
Of great importance for the occurrence of acute rhinitis has a general or local hypothermia, which leads to a weakening of protective mechanisms and local immunity. As a result of constantly present in the nasal cavity and become pathogenic bacteria begin to multiply, causing inflammation.
Acute allergic rhinitisis a manifestation of an allergic reaction to inhaled allergens from the air. It may be seasonal (one of the manifestations of hay fever — an allergic reaction to the pollen of flowering plants), that is, occur at certain times of the year when they bloom or other plants. Or year-round — there is in contact with the nasal mucosa allergen. For example, upon contact with saliva or hair pet waste products dust mites, dust from the book while visiting storage library or archives.
Also, acute rhinitis may result from exposure corrosive chemicals, smoke, and a cold air. These cases are not allergy.
Symptoms of rhinitis
Typically, acute rhinitis are three stages of development:
- Irritation of dry (dry)
- Serous discharge (wet)
- Muco-purulent (pus)
Stage dry irritation lasts for a short time, usually a few hours, at least — up to 1-2 days. Blood vessels of the mucosa at this stage extended and filled with blood (hyperemia) itself Mucous — Dry. In the nose, there are unpleasant sensations of burning, irritation, in a word, in the nose, "itching". Want to sneeze uncontrollably, often tears streaming from his eyes. At the same time there is a headache, malaise, the temperature may rise slightly (to subfebrile values). Then there is swelling, nasal passages narrow, nasal breathing is difficult, develops nasal congestion. It is also possible loss of the ability to distinguish between odors and taste disturbance.
These symptoms indicate the development of the second stage of acute rhinitis — stage serous discharge. Of the extended and crowded small-vessel, which increases the permeability of the walls in inflammation begins propotevat ("leak"), the liquid fraction of blood — plasma. Formed as a result of this process serous fluid permeates the surrounding tissue. Inflammation also leads to enhanced secretion of mucus by goblet cells. Mucosal edema and excessive mucous and serous nasal discharge — the characteristic features of this stage of acute rhinitis. In the discharge of this in large enough amounts of the ammonia and sodium chloride, which explains why the upper lip, around the nasal passages and on the wings of the nose skin irritation.
In the presence of a strong immune system coryza can independently go through 2-3 days. Otherwise, on the fourth or fifth day of illness it is entering a stage of muco-purulent discharge. Discharge from the nose at this stage are yellowish-green color, which is associated with the appearance of these blood cells (leukocytes, lymphocytes) and ottorgnuvshihsya epithelial cells. In the next few days there may be a reduction of production of secretions, nasal congestion recovery, improvement of general condition, and in 8-14 days — the cure. But in the absence of adequate treatment or weakened immunity the disease can last for 3-4 weeks, the high risk of transition in its chronic form. Intensity and duration of symptoms of acute rhinitis depends on the mucosa of the nose band. If it is atrophied, they will be less pronounced, and sharp period — shorter. When mucosal hypertrophy, conversely, symptoms become more pronounced, and for longer.
Against the backdrop of acute rhinitis may occur stuffy ears and even hearing loss. This is due to the spread of inflammation in the mouth of the auditory (Eustachian) tube, which open into the nasal passages. Inflammation interferes with the normal opening them, resulting in the tympanic cavity of the ear creates a negative pressure and sound transmission is broken.
Children sharp rhinitis often leads to the spread of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the throat with the development of nasopharyngitis or deeper in the respiratory tract, affecting the larynx, trachea, bronchi. Frequent complication of rhinitis in children — acute otitis media (ear infection). This is facilitated by the structural features of the nasopharynx, short and wide Eustachian tube.