Launches "Mace" in 2010, frozen for 10 months after the disaster 9 December 2009, is often postponed. At first they planned to resume in the spring of 2010, but then they were delayed because of the need to conduct a painstaking inspection build rockets to identify possible manufacturing and engineering errors. In late July, the Defense Ministry said that the IDB will start in the middle of August 2010, but later tests again postponed to a later date. At this time, forest fires have become a prerequisite and as a consequence the highest smoky air, which could hamper the visual tracking of the rocket flight.
Nuclear submarine "Dmitry Donskoy" Project 941 "Akula" came out in snow-white sea for continued testing, "Bulava" on the night of October 6. Initially scheduled for launch until the 10th, but the later date specified and assigned to October 7. Randomness is either a preplanned, but another tested missiles, which proved successful, the Defense Ministry to podgadali days of birth, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin.
WHAT COULD HAVE DONE
The next launch "Bulava" was preceded by a long 10 months of training, which specifically tested for quality production promising ICBMs. According to Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov, this was necessary in order to collect three similar rocket, which is scheduled for launch in 2010. One of them has already completed puzzle on October 7, the second is expected to fly in late October, about the time of the third missile tests while it is not clear.
So, just for this day have been 13 launches "Bulava", only 6 of which were found to be successful. With all of this 13th in a row test IDB was the first in 2010, and it was preceded by a longish string of failures. The last time rocket safely headed for the landfill king November 28, 2008. This launch (ninth) military dubbed, of course, successful, as "Mace" is not only flew to chickens, and was struck by it all started for her purpose.
In the course of 7 failed start crashing every time place in a brand new site launch. This "floating" issue has generated a lot of guesswork. Namely, expressed the view that difficulties "Bulava" related to errors made in the design: the work on the missile in 1997 were not transferred Miasskoe KB Makeyev, specializing in the development of sea-based missiles, as the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology (MIT), formerly created the land ICBM "Topol-M". It was also said that the failure of the "Bulava" due to the fact that MIT haste to finish the bench tests rocket (it took just one poster start), moving them to the submarine.
Another version, voiced by a number of Russian officials said that the manufacture of rockets frequently allowed the marriage, and this explains the "floating" of the problem. A more detailed response to the question of who is jinxed "Bulava", in the spring of 2010 gave the then chief designer of rocket Yuri Solomonov, the last manager of the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology. According to him, the bad missile launches associated with the absence of a right to her creation of materials, and with manufacturing defects and lacking control of the properties of all the steps of production. In turn, this could serve as a prerequisite for the disastrous 90 years, during which time a lot of spices or changed their occupation or retired.
One should also not forget about the corruption component. At the end of September 2010 in Bryansk tribunal sentenced to two years probation 2-former employees of a factory, because of which the machinery established for the Armed Forces, equipped with a civilian, not military electronics. Neither the names of the prisoners nor title companies were not announced, but the "Rossiyskaya Gazeta" reported that this plant produces electronics for missile "Bulava". It collects both civilian and military IC. All products are virtually indistinguishable from the outside. But the second holding over the highest reliability, and the means and are much more expensive.
At the end of July 2010 version of workmanship confirmed Municipal Commission dealing with the research of bad start "Bulava" which held on 9 December 2009. Then the rocket painted the sky above the Norwegian Tromsø unheard of until then fireworks — during the flight sliding nozzle "Bulava" between the first and second stage could not get in position. The reason for that was not the engineering error, specifically a manufacturing defect — during the last flight of the rocket nozzle and put forward because the designers thought. To combat the bungler Department of Defense not only held a major test companies, lured to the production of ICBMs, and threatened to review the scheme of its creation.
So, in the middle of September 2010 Anatoly Serdyukov said that if the bad starts, "Bulava" will continue to be one hundred percent changed the system of production and control properties of the assembly of missiles. What directly provides configuration, the defense minister did not say. It is possible that were meant as personnel changes inside the team involved in the project, as well as a complete change of all the companies involved in the creation of test missiles. At the current time, "Mace" is done at the factory in Votkinsk, the same place where the "Poplars." After a number of days after the statement of the head of the military department, it became clear that Yuri Solomonov lost his post of head designer missiles and became head of the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology, is engaged in the development of land-based missiles. The main designer of "Bulava" appointed Alexander Sukhodolskiy.
Apparently, the threat of Anatoly Serdyukov, and all previous efforts to control the properties of the assembly have had the desired effect. In any case, according to the Ministry of Defense, start-up, carried out Oct. 7, 2010, was one hundred percent in a normal mode and all of the warheads arrived at the destination on the Kura test site. If we start from guessing that under the control of the Defense Ministry were indeed made three similar "Bulava", then the following two start-up should also be crowned with success. In this case, you can be safe to assume that the experts at found the "curse" of the launch failure. Will it get rid of it, is another question.
In the meantime, according to the plan the second in 2010, the launch of "Bulava" will also take place in the waters of a snow-white sea. The missile launched from submarine "Dmitry Donskoy", and if the flight is successful, the third start will take place from a strategic nuclear submarine "Yury Dolgoruky" Project 955 "Borey". She is a regular carrier promising weapons and has passed all factory tests. On the fact that the third, of course, the most important start "Bulava" will not only approbation
ICBMs, and a test of the combat use of the submarine itself. Indeed, in this case will be examined and efficiency, and accuracy of the interaction of missiles and submarine weapons systems.
Meanwhile, the Ministry of Defense were not slow to express completely life-affirming guesses about the coming of the future "Bulava". So, soon after the 13th missile launch Chief of the General Staff Nikolai Makarov has reported the success of President Dmitry Medvedev, after it was announced that it is necessary to conduct two more tests ICBMs and it can be taken on board. And basically the headquarters of the Navy even clarified: it happens in the middle of 2011, if everything starts "Mace" in 2010, will terminate safely. Around the same time in the Russian Navy will be included "Yury Dolgoruky".
It must be stressed that these conclusions seem so far early. Apparently, in order that it was possible read of the successful completion of applets, you need to spend even more successful launches "Bulava", so that their number is significantly higher than the number of failed. According to another according to the logic of military rocket should adopt another 5 years ago — three in a row successful test took place 23 September 2004, 27 September and 21 December 2005. But soon after that came the dark band — the failure of three in a row in 2006. Given the novelty of the majority component of the rocket and its very structure, the fate of a hasty decision, "Bulava" is better to refrain.
NO WAY OUT
It must be emphasized that reliable disk imaging on the technical properties of the rocket while a little. It is a three stage, whereby all three steps solid. "Mace" is designed makarom that it is run in an inclined plane, it allows MDBs to start with the water board to move around the submarine. The rocket is from 6 to 10 nuclear power units of 150 kilotons and a total weight of up to 1.15 tons. It is interesting that all combat units will be able to maneuver the yaw and pitch. Together with the "prowl" the third stage, this feature will increase the chances of the "Bulava" missile defense system to overcome a possible opponent. Flight range ICBM is about eight thousand kilometers.
In the future, "Mace" to be the main armament of strategic nuclear submarine of project 955/955A/955U "Northwind", each of which will be from 16 to 20 missiles. Namely, the "Yury Dolgoruky" is equipped with 16 missile tubes. Nuclear submarine project "Borey" have a displacement of 24 thousand tons and can dive to a depth of 450 meters. Submarines can reach speeds up to 29 knots. In addition to the missile silos for R-30 submarine will receive six torpedo tubes. At the current time in various stages of completion at Sevmash shipyard subs are "Vladimir Monomakh", "Alexander Nevsky" and "St. Nicholas."
And nuclear submarines and new missiles will be a crucial element of the nuclear triad of. It is believed that the adoption of the "Bulava" and submarines of the "Boreas" on arms adjust to upset the balance of forces in the Russian nuclear triad, will also print the maritime component of the strategic forces to a new level. This will be achieved fundamentally modern design "Bulava" and its abilities, capabilities and nuclear submarines fourth generation.
In late 2009, Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov said that more than 40% of the defense budget of the Russian Federation once a year is spent on the Navy. It's very simple. Endurance nuclear submarines is limited only by crew endurance, and supplies of provisions. In addition, the principal quality is stealth submarines. So Makar, strategic submarines are able to discreetly deliver a nuclear weapon in virtually any point of the world ocean. With all of this submarine is very difficult to find the right until the moment the missile launch.
Together with those troubles, "Bulava", if they will last, once again put under threat the project "Borey". In late 2009, a number of Russian media reported that the programm building submarines of this project can be frozen, if not absolutely closed. In general, the rumor spread quickly dispelled the Ministry of Defense, which, but neither confirmed nor denied the information about the probable suspension of the "Boreas". But, waiting for the "Bulava" will accept into service, do not become younger than submarines. Vpribavok rid of "Boreas" abilities are not — a lot of money spent on the creation of submarines, one of which has ended all the tests and preparing for the start "Bulava".
In the past year, some experts have expressed the view that the Russian Federation should abandon plans for "Bulava", and built submarine of project 955 converted under existing missiles, for example under the RSM-54 "The blue". Namely, stated that the missile is already in service, tested countless test launches, capable of delivering warheads to a distance of 8.3 thousand kilometers and carry up to eight warheads. True, all this was not taken into account that the substitution of the missile silos on submarines — it is very time consuming and costly. Also, "The blue" significantly more "Mace" in size and is vulnerable to a promising multilayer missile defense system. Such a system, for example, the U.S. is now taking shape with the help of NATO.
One should also not forget the fact that the tests are successful, "Bulava" is a kind of a matter of prestige for the Capital Institute of Thermal Technology, to engage in the creation of the only land-based missiles. Initially, the project "Mace" divined the highest degree of commonality with the land intercontinental ballistic missile, "Topol-M" and the RS-24 "Yars". At the current time, the degree of unification of missiles greatly reduced, but certain elements in common with them all still there. For example, these missiles, produced by the same factory in Votkinsk, platforms breeding warheads are almost identical. So Makar, almost following the bad starts, "Bulava" can destroy the reputation of "Topol" and "Yarsov." For this reason, the Metropolitan Institute of Heat over the Ministry of Defence should be interested in a painstaking control properties collected in Votkinsk missiles.
On the one hand, to realize the trouble "Bulava" can be — in fact in the development of rocket Capital Institute of Thermal Technology has decided to abandon the traditional scheme to form liquid-fuel missiles for submarines. "Mace" — solid-fuel rocket, more space-saving than the same "The blue". In addition, according to the institute, the missile has a low profile and is capable of flight suddenly and dramatically change the line of flight movements to overcome the enemy's anti-missile shield. According to Solomon, she is also resistant to the effects of nuclear explosions and to the laser gun. By the way, the laser component of the missile defense created a couple of years in the United States and even held his tests. In general, the effectiveness of laser weapons against strategic missiles is in question.
On the other hand, before that, when tested new missiles for submarines has never been seen as a huge number of failures. For example, in the general difficulty was made 42 test launches of R-29RM (later became the base of "Blue,"), of which 31 proved to be successful, and when tested, for example, the R-27 in the 60-ies of the 24 launch from submarines were successful. Against this background, characteristics of the "Bulava" — 13/6 — not outstanding. In general, the chances that all the troubles of her were associated specifically with manufacturing defects, are quite high, but a complete proof of this conjecture read so far in advance — you have to w
ait for the test flight, the remaining 2-missiles, similar to the one flown in the day of birth of Vladimir Putin.