Beautiful word "the sensitive" in Latin means only "sensitive." It turns out the child in different periods of life is particularly "sensitive", is susceptible to a particular type of activity.
Affect the timing and duration of these periods can not but be aware of them are very useful, not to go against nature. Furthermore, knowing how sensitive period to go to your kid, you can better prepare for it and pass it to maximum advantage. Education, as we know, is 90% of forethought.
Sensitive period fully and in detail the famous educator Maria Montessori and her followers. In their research, explaining the nature of the development of any child, regardless of his place of residence, ethnicity, cultural differences.
On the one hand, the sensitive periods are universal, because somehow pass through them all. On the other hand, they are unique, because the biological age does not always correspond to psychological — in some children's psychological development lags behind the physical, the other — ahead. Therefore, guided only by their own baby.
If the child has to do something by force, out of the corresponding sensitive period, then to the corresponding result they come late or not come at all. Therefore, to a variety of techniques such as "Read — before the walk," should be treated with great caution. Nature does not forgive the violence against them.
Sensitive period of development of speech: from 0 to 6 years
0 to years
The child imitates the sounds, shows great interest to the speech and to engage emotionally with an adult. At this age, he really wants to say, but can not yet do so. If the crumb was deprived of warm emotional contact (especially my mother) — such as children in orphanages, it is, alas, an irreparable loss, and the whole process of further development of the baby is already broken.
From one year to three years
At this age, baby develops oral language (we know that if for some reason he was deprived of human society and human speech, he will never learn to speak properly, such as child Mowgli). With great speed baby increases its vocabulary — this is the most intensive increase vocabulary in human life.
This is the period when the baby is most sensitive to linguistic norms. That is why Montessori advises adults lisp with a baby with him to speak clearly — now it is the most striking example to follow.
Three to six
After three years of a child there is interest to the letters, to the letter. With great enthusiasm, he is trying to write a particular letter. And by the way, not necessarily a pen on paper. Children gladly lay out the letters of the rods and wire, mold them out of clay or write with your finger on the sand. At the age of five, most children show an interest in reading in the five years to teach a child to read most easily, as if it is waiting for it.
Ironically, the more difficult to learn to read than to write. Therefore advises Montessori approach to reading through writing. After all, an — an expression of their thoughts and desires, and reading — is understanding other people's thoughts, the decision of some "foreign" puzzles.
Sensitive period for the perception of the order of from 0 to 3 years
The order for a child — it's not exactly what the procedure for an adult. The fact that things are in place, that every morning he waits for clothes, neatly folded on a chair that takes place every day at a certain routine — baby sees stability in the world. External order so drawn into the inner.
Sometimes adults think that children under two — two and a half years are unbearable capricious (some even speak of a crisis of two years). But it seems that this is not so much the vagaries of how the requirement to preserve the order of things. And if this order is disturbed, it knocks the little man out of the rut.
The order must be in everything in the environment, in time (each day passes in a certain rhythm), the behavior of adults (they act according to certain rules, which do not vary depending on the mood and the weather).
Sensitive period for sensory development: from 0 to 5.5 years
At this age, exercise the ability to see, hear, smell, taste, etc. This, of course, occurs naturally, but for a more intense sensory development of Maria Montessori recommends specific exercises, for example, with his eyes closed to determine the taste, smell, size.
Sensory impressions of the child should be as much as possible. And this does not necessarily every day to drive a crumb to the theater or to a concert of symphonic music. You can, for example, guess how sound different household items (listen, for example, ringing glass if it is slightly hit by a stick or spoon, and how to behave in the same situation iron pan or a wooden table).
The kids at this age (and adults too) love the game "Magic Pouch." In a bag of opaque fabric put a variety of small objects: pieces of different fabrics (chiffon on canvas), figurines of wood, plastic, metal, pieces of paper (from the tissue to sand), etc., and then to the touch is determined that found in the bag.
Sensitive period of very small objects of perception: from 1.5 to 5.5 years
Adults are horrified at seeing how young children are manipulated peas or small buttons. Especially when they are trying to figure out whether to put notwithstanding that the objects in the ear or nose. Of course, these games should take place only under adult supervision.
But it is quite natural interest, stimulating development fine motor finger in the use of which can not be doubted. So make sure to make the manipulation of small items safe. For example, a button can be strung on a strong thread — will receive the original beads that will take a long time baby. Together with you, he may long to disassemble and reassemble the designer with fine detail. This activity helps to solve the problem for remains whole and its parts.
Maria Montessori advised even create a special collection of very small objects.
Sensitive period of movements and actions: 1 to 4 years
It is extremely important lesson for a child. Due to the movement of the blood is saturated with oxygen, and the oxygen-rich blood supplies the brain cells that are involved in the development of all mental functions. And therefore, any class-lesson system, prolonged occupation at their desks for children at this age — just a crime against their nature.
Every year the child improves coordination of their movements, developing new activities and learn all rather feel my body. Help him in this! Run, jump on one foot, climb the ladder and balance on the beam — the lessons are no less important than learning to write and read.
The sensitive period development of social skills: from 2.5 to 6 years
At this age, a child learns cultural forms of communication — what then will be called etiquette.
Up to six years laid the foundations of social behavior, baby absorb like a sponge, examples of both the gross and the polite way of communicating with the world. It mainly acts imitative faculty. So try to behave yourself, how do you think should behave your child.
Based on the book Maria Montessori, "Help me do it myself", Moscow, 2000