In general, the problem was solved simply, if the purpose of the bombing was located near: in this situation detach escort fighters, which should not have to allow to approach the enemy bombers awkward. But what if the crash occurs deep into the enemy's country? Do fighters in this case simply was not enough fuel in order to accompany the bombers all the way.
The primary solution to the puzzles gave a hint, apparently, the designers of ships, aircraft carriers. And truth: bomber escort can take with you, if the latter is in any way attached to the fuselage. In the event of a threat fighters disengaged, are fighting, and by its end they dock back! But not everything is so simple and sunny.
Fighter F-84E Thunderjet separated from the trapeze mount installed on the serial bomber RB-36F-1 Peacemaker (received after modifying the name of GRB-36D) in the framework of programs from FICON. It was assumed that the aircraft parasite will be placed entirely inside the vehicle, but due to excessive rates of development limited suspension. Left — the realization of the same mind-boggling concept
USS Uncle "Tom-Tom"
Numerous experiments in this direction have shown that this decision, despite its apparent simplicity, is fraught with tragedy and at the technical level is very difficult, as it should, is unreliable. Therefore, in an attempt to overcome the problem of the South American engineers decided to "throw in" together … everyday production aircraft.
The first project under the designation MX-1018 foresaw the hitch with the introduction of flexible mounts between the wingtips bomber B-29 and 2-fighter F-84D, but the tests began in a somewhat different form: EB-29A plus two EF-84B. Test flights conducted Sept. 15 1950goda first single "parasitic" plane, and then with 2 (the latest engines were turned off right before undocking), have shown that the idea is right for the next development. The advantage of the system is the simplicity of disconnection that was available even semi-skilled pilots. Drawback — in strong turbulence created by the wings of bombers that caused the slopes of fighters and achieved sustained attention of the pilots. And they had hard times and so: they were obliged to stay in cabins with disabled due to non-working engine heated for hours of flight.
Meanwhile, tests (including night flying and testing of automatic, without the participation of the pilot to control a fighter) continued until April 24, 1953 is not the tragedy occurred. The left EF-84B at one point worked automatic control system fighter hit the wing of the EB-29A, and both aircraft fell to the ground. The entire crew died air carrier.
Along with the project MX-1018 started a similar project under the title "Tom-Tom", in which a bomber RB-36F, previously used on the first test program there FICON («carrier fighter"), has been on the tips of the wings to carry two fighters RF-84F. But "Tom-Tom" pursued the same prepyadstviya as the MX-1018: at the end of 1953 due to turbulence fighter, coupled with articulated arms and locks, almost torn off from the carrier. Fearing a repeat of the disaster with the MX-1018, the Air Force command and soon caught the project, the more so that the system of refueling in the air repeatedly to increment the range acts fighter aircraft.
In general, ought to invent something else. And South American inventors newly proposed another solution — aircraft capable of literally split apart in flight.
Illustration of a patent
George Zimmer in 1976. Zimmer meant to evacuate the pilot may not be enough chairs catapult. Cockpit, he developed on the basis of the bombers General Dynamics F-111, was to be a separate small airplane with engines, wings, tail
The period of patent
First flying apparatus with multiple fuselage appeared some time ago, it was the passenger (!) plane, patented v1949godu Yankees Dave Weiss. Passenger liner had two cases, for some reason square in cross-section, fastened with a wing-glider and among themselves (shoulder on shoulder, or one above the other). According to the plan of the inventor, in the case of the tragedy of the passengers with a crew will go to the intact part of the plane, and discard the broken part. This stylish solution, however, is not aviafirmy intrigued.
Creatively developed the idea in 1961, another Yankee — James Di Perna. To increase the safety of air travel, he aggressively sealed … two ordinary twin-engine passenger aircraft. In the event of a breakdown of the 1st of their passengers on the stairs had to move to the second liner, unhook the faulty careless and continue flying.
On a similar path was once the Yankees, Elijah, Enoch, received a patent for the invention of "aircraft having two cloven flying parts," all in the same 1961. However, one of the "flying units" (the top) to do a clean life functions, while the bottom was vsepolnotsennym passenger aircraft. Interestingly, by the way, that the rescue capsule, made on a "flying wing" in the illustration to the patent has four engines, while passenger liner — just two.
In 1967, a patent on a shared aircraft received a group of inventors (Joseph Dastoli, William Denel, Leon Helepes) from Connecticut. Unlike colleagues, they looked to the future and not just offer a couple of linked together gliders and heavy military transport plane carrying capacity of 50 tons of vertical take-off and landing!
Aircraft, as it should from the description, was to consist of 2-sections: the top (half the fuselage longitudinal plane, with wings and tail engines) and a lower curb second half fuselage and 4 engines on turning the pylons. The upper part was taking on the role of the means of delivery, and the bottom, in what was a cargo, providing vertical landing after undocking. Range of acts of "dual plane" — from 16 000 to 19 000 km — made it possible to soar from bases in the South American mainland and not worry about having a point of destination aerodrome, as the landing can be made at all, even unprepared, playground.
In addition, the inventors have pointed to double the safety of the flight (in the case of the tragedy of the crew remains alive), and the possibility of landing the heavy military equipment without the introduction of massive parachute systems.
Finally, in 1976, one of California's George Zimmer received a patent for a fighter cockpit, in the case of the tragedy quite separated, and the ability to fly without the aid of others. For this cabin had its own engines, wings and tail.
Either way, all of these projects connects voedinyzhdy
one thing: they have not reached the stage of patents, in the main due to technical difficulties and operational growth rates. It seems to be the theme of possession. Yet now the military once again returned to an old good idea coupled aircraft.
The project Odysseus, developed in the framework of one of the numerous programs DARRA is an unmanned "puzzle", capable of flying in the stratosphere. Any section of the drone is equipped with 3 electric motors and propellers appropriate. Odysseus is capable of flying at a speed of 63 m / h, carrying with it all 450-500 kg payload. Solar panels can constantly charge the modules, the module can be discharged supplanted charged in mid-air
Odyssey of Flight
This, namely, the question of the concept of Aurora Flight Sciences — 3 UAVs with electric motors connected to the wing tip. A modular system for the views of the developers can rapidly replace warped new method of simple machines fumbling.
Each module with a wingspan of 50 meters and a weight of 1350 kg will rise into the air, individually and engage with the "brothers" at an altitude of, such a scheme is easier if previously collected off the machine. What is generally necessary grip? It's very simple, "coupled" design of 3 modules gives the trifecta in the same capacity at the air drag as that of a single module.
In flight, the aircraft can change the shape, achieving a more efficient solar rotation angle relative to the Sun. According to the head designer Aurora Flight Sciences Bob Parks, because of that Odysseus would be able to produce energy even in extreme conditions such as high latitudes over the last month of the winter solstice. At night the same machine can unpack "a tape" and to plan, almost without unnecessary Accum.
Odysseus project was created within the framework of programs from DARPA (Defense Agency promising research development dollars) to build the machine that combines the ability of the aircraft and low-orbit satellites. Puzzles such aircraft will be watching for the enemy, its definition and target designation, telecommunications software, mapping, and atmospheric research and environment monitoring.
Car from Aurora Flight Sciences is adequate to the military conditions: non-stop flight to 5 years and the necessary load of 450 kg per module. Among the payload comes radar system, multi-spectral camera, electro-optical and / or infrared camera, laser designator, a laser range finder, and other necessary equipment to perform the tasks.
At least one direction of "separable aircraft" is not lucky. When was it really necessary technologies do not allow adequate construction. Now, when science and technology have gained significant heights, you must first justify the need for the creation of "sharing" of the machine, and then have to build it. Will put into effect the project Odysseus, whether there will be similar — time will tell, and the state of the global economy. The last factor — at first.