North started the war on the Allied invasion of in the Swedish possessions. First, in 1700 the 7000th Saxon army led by the Elector Augustus II without declaring war, invaded Livonia. Dinamiunde Saxons captured the town and laid siege to the city of Riga. The Danes have decided to knock on the Duchy of Holstein, the union of Sweden, protect yourself from the rear. In March 16000th Danish army led by the Danish King Frederik IV (1699 — 1730), invaded the duchy. The Danes captured the fortress Guzum (Husum) and besieged Tonningen. After the occupation of the Danish Holstein command planned takeover of Pomerania. Baron asked for protection from the Charles XII as in their own kin (Holstein ruler was married to the eldest sister of Charles XII).
Frederick IV (ruler of Denmark).
Karl XII kept his head and began to act vigorously. 8000th Swedish case has been sent to Pomerania. Immediately Swedish master was preparing a blow to Denmark itself, in Karlskrona was centered 20 thousand army and 42 ships. At the head of these forces Swedish master sailed to the island of Zealand. April 13, 1700 Swedish master left Stockholm, in which he is not destiny was to come back. Before leaving, Carl organized a council of defense of several senators. This municipal authority had to plead for the army, navy and fortresses. Master of the Senate instructed to manage all areas inside the country, not military related. Carl himself planned to do on the war. Swedish king took on board most powerful ship of the Navy of Sweden — "King Carl", he was armed with 120 guns.
The Swedish fleet at Gumlebeka braked, 7 miles from the Danish capital. On the Swedish side, suddenly the Allies, was Holland and the UK, they were sent to help the Swedes united squadron led by Admiral D. Rook. The British and the Dutch in the Altona conference in 1689 guaranteed the position of Holstein, also does not want the Danes controlled the Strait of Vain. Danish Royal Navy, and he had a total 29 ships of the line and 4 frigates, did not dare go out to sea and to give battle.
July 24 (August 4) 1700 Swedish army planted on the peninsula Zealand. Assault force commanded by Count Carl Gustav Renshild, he was adviser to the coming Carla XII on military matters. It was a very bold decision, since the presence of the Danes in a smart and decisive commander, they could derail the plan (remember the fight that gave the Turkish troops Alexander Suvorov in 1787 in Kinburn). The Danes have gathered all around Gumlebeka cavalry behind her in the trenches are located militia and artillery. Swedish landing party did not exceed six thousand people. Lord Charles, despite his attacks plaguing marine diseases, personally led a strike force of 300 grenadiers. From the sea, land covered by artillery fire fleet. Under fire, the Danish Swedish troops rushed to shore. Hurt showed tremendous courage, near destroyed officer and wounded Quartermaster General Stewart, one fatal bullet could stop the war. The Danes almost took the fight and retreated. The construction of fortifications around the land of Copenhagen, for the next day dropped another 9 thousand fighter.
So powerful fortress as Copenhagen, could defend a very long time. But played a role somewhat negative reasons. In 1-x, the Danish capital management is not prepared to defend in advance. In-2, the Swedish army of Charles XII, numbering 15 thousand people, the Danes could oppose the garrison of less than 4 thousand fighter, the main Danish army led by King Frederick was in Holstein. B-3, the townspeople were not psychologically prepared to defend the town to the last ability, await the arrival of the Danish army. When Charles XII threatened to damage the capital of one hundred percent, if the Danes refused to sign peace on his criteria, they gave up. Copenhagen Carl paid a contribution of 400 thousand thalers. And the ability for this were: the Danish fleet could remove a significant number of guns, strengthening the defense of the capital, point to strengthen the sailors, the main army of Denmark is not defeated. The Swedes could not tighten the siege, they waged war against Saxony, Our homeland.
7 (18) in August 1700 in the castle of Holstein Travendal peace was concluded. Denmark to withdraw troops from Holstein, recognized its sovereignty and ordered to pay her compensation for the loss of 260 thousand military reyhstalerov. The Danish side rejected an alliance with Saxony and Russia, has pledged not to provide aid to the opponents the Swedish empire. Grand Total short-Danish campaign was featured 18-year-old master victoriously finished the war against an old enemy of Sweden for 6 weeks (period of intense activity of the major Swedish forces), with virtually no loss, Army troops were released for the transfer of the Baltic.
Entry into the war of, acts of Charles and Saxon army
Our homeland under arrangements with allies going to war after the conclusion of peace with the Ottoman Empire. 8 (19), came the news that the Russian ambassador in Istanbul Ukrainians signed a truce with the Porte for 30 years. The next day our homeland declared war on Sweden, "for many of their iniquity sveyskiya and especially those who are most important for dishonesty committed by the stately and plenipotentiary ambassadors in Riga, in the past 1697." Russian troops were moved from Moscow to Novgorod through Narva, which was considered the main stronghold of the Swedes in the Baltic. In principle, the calculation was correct: the fortress on the bank of the Narva River, 12 kilometers from its mouth, was of tremendous value. The capture area on the strip to drive a wedge between the Narva with 2 Swedish military groups — Livonia-of Estonia and Karelia. In addition, the fortress of Narva itself for itself was lovely base for the deployment of the Russian military offensives in Ingria (Ingermanlandia, Izhora Izhorskaya land — ethno-cultural and historical area, situated on the banks of the Neva).
The ruler of Peter I was planning to bring to the Swedish fortress of more than 60 thousand people: the regular army, composed of three divisions under the command of Anikita Repnina, Adam Weide, autonomy and Prince Ivan Golovin Trubeckogo (about 40 thousand), manorial cavalry, which included the 5000th detachment under the command of Boris Sheremeteva (about 10 thousand), and Cossacks from Ukraine under the command of Ataman Ivan Obidovskogo (more than 10 thousand people). But a number of reasons, do not have time to concentrate all the forces at Narva, at the time of the fight with Carl. Thus, the division Repnina were in Novgorod, Pskov Obidovskogo Cossacks, Gdov and Pechora monastery. Apart from these forces of the Russian troops came Artillery Regiment, it consisted of 195 guns, commanded by Prince Alexander of Imereti (kind of Bagration). Initially, the supreme commander of the Russian army was Field Marshal Autonomous Golovin, but the post was nominal, since the actual management of producing himself ruler. Responsible for the supply of troops General purveyance Simon languages. At the last moment to the headquarters of the Russian Army on the advice Elector of Saxony joined the Dutch baron, Field Marshal Carl Eugene de Croix.
On the way to Narva Russian Army in September captured the fortress Iamburg (Yam), Koporye.
Swedish lord, leaving the army in Denmark, the main forces of the sea was transported to Livonia (about 10 thousand). Fri landing was elected Pärnu (Pernau). Hence, the Swedish king-general was planning to go to Riga to knock on the precipitating it
s Saxon troops. Saxon ruler, having learned that the Danes defeated Denmark withdrawn from the war, and the victorious Swedish army advances in Livonia, immediately raised the siege and retreated from Riga to the Polish countryside. Because Carl changed the proper initial action plan and decided to knock on the Russian army, which besieged Narva. After landing in Pärnu on October 6, he sent troops to Revel (Tallinn), and further to the Narva.
The siege of Narva
Narva was a strong fortress, which represented a unified defense system with a lock Ivangorod on the right bank of the Narva River. Ivangorod and Narva together a fortified bridge, which allowed cross divisions between the fortifications even in the criteria of the siege. This has led to the need for the Russian army to block both the fortress at once. The area around the fortress was swampy, especially after it became impassable autumn rain. This dramatically narrowed the ability of the introduction of the Russian cavalry. The fortress itself had strong fortifications, to breach the gaps needed a heavy siege artillery. Defended its garrison of two thousand soldier under the command of Colonel Horn. The commandant of the fortress Horn on offer to surrender replied mockingly, Colonel counted on the power of the fortifications, the courage of the garrison, the backwardness of the Russian army on the requirements of the advanced experience of the euro. Especially since it has come up to the mountain of the imminent arrival of the army of Karl XII.
The vanguard of the Russian army led by prince of Novgorod commander Ivan Trubetzkoy arrived at Narva three weeks after the declaration of war — 9 (20) of September. September 23 (October 4), the fortress came a detachment of Ivan Buturlina together with Peter I. 14 (25), came of Avtomonov Boris Golovin and cavalry Sheremeteva. In the end, the beginning of hostilities Russian command was able to concentrate the Swedish fortress of 34 to 40 thousand infantry and cavalry (21 soldier's regiment, 7 musketeer, 2 dragoon, an artillery regiment and a number of other compounds).
Russian troops encamped on the left bank of the Narva River in one line that spanned the semicircular fortress Narva and went out to the flanks of the river. Ivangorod was also blocked. The camp was fortified with a ditch and embankment in front of 7 km to the west facing. The right flank of the Russian army occupied the division Golovin, former "burlesque shelf", the center — the forces of Novgorod governor Trubeckogo, the left wing — Connection Division Weide, the aristocratic Sheremeteva militia took positions on the tip of the left flank, then it was given the task to conduct exploration Revel direction.
For the organization of the siege of Narva Augustus II recommended the Russian Tsar engineer Ludwig Allart, he was warmly received by Peter, he was bestowed the rank of lieutenant general. Augustus also sent some engineering and artillery officers to control the siege works. Management of bulwarks governor instructed foreign military spec. But soon it became clear that the foreign engineers did not do anything, the same controversy and criticism hinder each other. In the end, Peter himself had to take control of the siege, only to reach without the help of others. Under enemy fire began to build "aproshi" (approaches). First, in October 1700 from Pskov and Novgorod brought languid artillery. The governor personally managed the site selection and installation tools, control the actions of the gunners. It must be said that the artillery was in a deplorable condition and wheel carriages due to off-road constantly broke from mortars fired stones, because the bomb did not match the caliber of guns, gunpowder was poor properties. 20 (31) October, the Russian army began a constant bombardment of Narva, but two weeks later ran charges. In addition, most of the guns were of small caliber. They were not able to inflict serious damage to the fortress.