The total volume of ice in the Arctic summer of 2011 fell to a record low on record — 4.2 thousand cubic kilometers of ice on the area and this year only 160,000 square kilometers behind the minimum in 2007, said in a preliminary version of the annual report on the state of climate change prepared by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
The report was presented during the regular WMO, 17th session of the Conference of Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which runs from November 28 to December 9 in Durban, South Africa."The global average surface temperature of the planet in January-October 2011, according to our estimates, was on 0,3-0,52 degrees Celsius above the average for 1961-1990, which is 14 degrees. Now figures in 2011 put him on the 10 in the "rating" of the warmest years, with the first 13 places of this "rating" fall on the years from 1997 to 2011-D "- the report says WMO.The previous one, in 2010, according to the previous report, released on the record of the temperatures, sharing first place with 2005, and the decade of 2001-2010 was the warmest in the history of observations. Ten years from 2002 to 2011, according to the WMO, were as record warm — the average temperature during this period is 0.46 degrees Celsius higher than the historical average.High temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere, led to the fact that a minimum area of seasonal ice in the Arctic, recorded on 9 September, was 4.33 million square kilometers (35% below the average for 1979-2000), which is only 160,000 square kilometers more than "antirekordnom" 2007. Ice volume with decreased further to 4.2 thousand cubic kilometers — 380 cubic kilometers less than the previous record in 2010.La Nina has not prevented"The climate of the planet in 2011, greatly influenced strong La Niña, which emerged in the second half of 2010 and continued until May 2011. This phenomenon, which in many ways has become the most powerful of its kind in 60 years, is associated with many significant regional weather events — drought in East Africa, in the equatorial Pacific and the southern United States, as well as floods in southern Africa, eastern Australia and South-East Asia ", — the report says meteorologists.La Niña is characterized by an abnormal cooling of the surface water in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. This process is the reverse of the El Nino, which is associated, however, with the warming of the ocean. And El Niño (translated from Spanish as "the boy") and La Niña ("girl"), which may hold for nine months, leading to a change in the scheme of circulation of ocean and atmospheric currents, which in turn affects the weather and climate around the globe.Years, in which there is La Niña, usually 0.1-0.15 degrees colder their "neighbors" on the calendar. This is true for 2011, but it still is much warmer than the previous similar in strength La Niña — 2008, 2000 and 1989.Geography heatAccording to the WMO, in 2011 was warmer than normal across most of the continent. Thus the most significant deviations from the average were in Russia, especially in the north, where in January-October, average temperatures in some places exceeded the historical average by four degrees."It is particularly warm in the region was in the spring, when some stations shows the temperature at nine degrees above seasonal, and in European Russia again a hot summer — but not the same as in 2010, but it has become the third in Moscow in the history of temperature ", — the report said.It was hot and in neighboring countries, "sultry" records were recorded in Finland, where the summer in Helsinki was the hottest in the last 200 years, and in Armenia, where summer temperatures set an absolute time high for the country (43.7 degrees Celsius).Warmer than average in January-October was also in Europe, in the south-west Asia, north and central Africa, and the southern United States and northern Mexico, particularly in the east and north-east of Canada and Greenland."Central America is going to ensure that 2011 will be the warmest for the region over the past 140 years, and in Spain the first 10 months of the year have already set a national record," — said in a report.Colder than average this year was in the north and central parts of Australia, where in some places the temperature was one degree below the average, which was mainly due to increased cloudiness and rain at the beginning of the year. In addition, below-average temperatures were recorded in the western United States, southwestern Canada, the Indochina Peninsula, eastern China and the Korean Peninsula.