Conducting training for large-scale battles between Nazi Germany and the Russian Union was accompanied by a global confrontation to "invisible front." Almost all of who it will be a winner, and success depended in Lofty Russian war.
Prior to the war, and in its first years, the issues of state security of the Union of Russian People's Commissariat of State Security was engaged and military intelligence agencies.
The activities of intelligence organizations significantly activated in 1940, when it became obvious that Germany is preparing for an attack on Russian Alliance. Noteworthy that the first warning about the ability of the Nazi attack on the Soviet Union began to arrive for a long time until 22 June 1941. First such news began to arrive in 1940 in Tokyo and Berne, and slightly later — from Berlin, Washington, London, Ankara, Warsaw. The main information came for political diplomatic channels.
Since the summer of 1940, the Russian military exploration, F.I.Golikov headed, kept under the control of the basic information about the movements of German troops, the military potential of Nazi Germany on the total number of its troops, the number and composition of compounds. It was also determined the number of armies, corps and divisions that exchanging the borders of the Union of Russian, as their weapons.
In total, up to 1941 had been received about 22 reports and the date of commencement of hostilities against Germany, the Soviet Union. It is clear that there was a great disparity in the dates, and a sufficient amount of misinformation (German intelligence service also did not sit, warehouse hands, and constantly spread misinformation to her right). Such dates filled to approximately 10-15. But that's not the point. The main thing is that for 10-11 days before the war, was received about 28 reports with a clear date.
The most clear and valuable reports that Nazi Germany is preparing for an attack came from Richard Sorge in Tokyo, which worked at the German Embassy in the country of the rising sun, so had access to the hidden data, namely, the correspondence Eugen Ott (German salting in the Land of the Rising Sun). First report from Sorge came about a month before Hitler signed a sad recognizable "Barbarossa" (it happened November 18, 1940). Sorge noted that on the borders of the USSR concentrated 80 Nazi divisions. Later — already first in 1941 he once passed on information that the Germans concentrated their forces on the borders, transferring troops from France. He said the end of the construction of the German fortifications on the eastern borders. And yet extraordinary value are two of his dispatches from June 15, in what was clearly specified date and time of the attack on German troops Russian Alliance.
Yet, the German invasion of the Soviet countryside June 22 Soviet intelligence caught off guard. Because there was a need for a radical restructuring of its operations. Even with clear evidence of preparation for an attack the Germans, Russian intelligence failed to adequately prepare for the activity in the criteria of the war. But the situation remains similar to the conscience of the political administration, which failed to assess the situation and promptly take the necessary decisions.
All this affects the efficiency of exploration. In-1's, all the activities that have been identified earlier, were slowly, in-2, mobilization activities razvedformirovany could not meet the target date. Explained by the fact that the maintenance of such associations in readiness, we need systematic work in for at least a couple of years. B-3, on the nature of the activities have had a significant impact principle of offensive combat operations in hostile terrain. That's why the beginning of the war was the sudden for Russian intelligence because of everything that happens contrary to its pre-war preparations.
Because from the very beginning of the war Intelligence was active in the preparation of effective intelligence in the new criteria. To work in the intelligence picked up by volunteers. Had the advantage of those who were familiar with the Radio work. Education continued regardless of the level of general education and military training, and how long it was planned to use this or another spy in the enemy's rear. Training lasted longer all have radio operators. They had to study in detail the radio, also take on hearing the order of 100-200 characters per minute.
In fact, since the first days of the war intelligence sat down to flip the rear enemy sabotage and reconnaissance groups and teams, also organized guerrilla units. Thus, only in the first two months of the war 17 was formed guerrilla units airlifted about 500 scouts, 29 reconnaissance and sabotage groups. In 1943-1945 years — even more, about 1,900 such groups totaling about 10 thousand people, also drawn to the work of some 15 thousand people of the local population. During the same time period produced about 170 thousand different documents, obtained information on the hidden negotiations between Hitler and Mussolini, Horthy and Antonescu, who testified that the country's Russian allies were negotiating the surrender of Germany concerning lopsided. An important role in getting this disk imaging played zabugornye intelligence, which operated in the territories of Switzerland, Iran, Turkey, the UK, France, the United States of America. Time has justified that such action was needed not only in order to find the enemy's plans, and in order to find out their own plans as allies, since they do not really want to share it with the USSR.
Of great importance in the activities of military intelligence had guerrilla groups and the formation, which was given the task to collect disk imaging enemy forces, disruption of operations, carrying out acts of sabotage at the facilities and communications. Since the beginning of 1943 on the basis of guerrilla groups began to form operational centers that were to be engaged in the organization of intelligence activities. Each of these centers has been broadcasting center for communications with the staffs of fronts. In January 1943, with the guerrilla group began to operate N.Fedorova Center "Omega" which controlled areas of Kiev, Pripyat, Bakhmach, and who had to discover the German group and look for redeployment Germans reserves. More intensely acted I.Banova center in Minsk, Brest. In the summer of 1943, was created by the operations center of Uzbekistan under the command A.Brinskogo who acted in Kamenetz-Podolsk and Kovel. Here a large spy network operated, which was collecting disk imaging on the movements of Nazi troops. Brinskogo center has had a huge impact on the planning and conduct of the Byelorussian operation.
As for the external intelligence service, carrying out intelligence activities abroad was assigned to the 1st Chief Directorate of the NKVD. It carried out a joint operation with the British SIS to eliminate intelligence network in Afghanistan, Iran and Turkey. One of the priority tasks outside intelligence was to obtain data on the situation in Germany and the definition of its political and military ambitions in the East. And since most of the external intelligence agents who operated on the ground in Germany before the war were destroyed, Lieutenant General P.Fitin, who was the head of the Union of Russian NKVD PSU, put the puzzle before the English network of agents to fill the gaps in the missing disk imaging. It is worth noting that, despite the fairly strong position of British agents in Germany (they have access to the coming environment Fuhrer, the Abwehr, the scientific community involved in the development of nuclear weapons), to share information with the Soviet Union, they did not hurry. Information acquired from the "Cambridge Five" (remember, this is a network of Russian agents that operated in England and which included Kim Fibley, Donald Maclean, Anthony Blunt, Guy Burgess and John Cairncross) was very principled. But Stalin with a huge grain of salt applied to the British, who recently spread of war in America coded message that the Soviet Union Tipo preparing a preemptive strike on Germany. And because the information they provided did not take into account. So, in 1942, was received from London information the preparation of the coming of the new Germany in the North Caucasus and Stalingrad — what it led to, we all know very well. Russian attitude control to intelligence received from London, changed in 1943, when it became obvious that all data is valid, as obtained specifically in the circles of the German military command. Particularly from British agents was obtained information the preparation of the Nazis "Operation Citadel" Kursk. According to the agents, Hitler decided to make up for Stalingrad. Specifically, the event that these data were taken into account, and started to prepare countermeasures against the "Citadel", led to the eventual turning point in the war.
Russian military intelligence and worked intensively in the spread of misinformation. In the process of carrying out all the operations acted exploration military units also conducted aerial reconnaissance. Very often used in operations nightly quest to capture the prisoners were set ambushes, raids were carried out, reconnaissance and surveillance. Excellent acting and radio intelligence, which in the last years of the war deepened for many miles on enemy terrain.
Summarizing the results of some Russian military intelligence during the war, Russian stateliness, it is worth noting that almost all precisely because of its acquisition of the data was defeated in the war. Her work was highly regarded not only Russian political control, but once observed, and the fascist ruling circles. In the course of the biggest battles of intelligence played a huge role. Thus, in the Battle of Moscow intelligence was given full information about the Army Group "Center": the number of tank divisions and groups. During the Battle of Stalingrad specific intelligence provided information that the Germans have new missiles "Fau" tanks "Tiger", self-propelled artillery "Ferdinand".
On the basis of disk imaging provided by military spies, Russian command had a complete picture of all the plans and objectives of the Germans. During the war was carried out thousands of sabotage and intelligence operations, captured a lot of German soldiers and officers, produced a huge number of fundamental documents, destroyed by an unlimited number of communications and derailed trains with thousands of manpower, technology and food supplies of the enemy.
Despite the fact that the beginning of the war was a huge challenge for the Russian spies, they were able to sustain his dignity. They honorably fulfilled its own debt, defending the freedom of the country and the right of its people to live in peace.