Scientists to work origin of the planets is not the first attempt to find an explanation for the differences that are observed among the terrestrial planets, and among the giant planets. One outstanding problem — differences of Mars from the other terrestrial planets. If we assume that Mars appeared around the same time with the Earth, Venus and Mercury, why is it half the Earth and nearly ten times its easier?
In addressing this problem has helped the now popular theory of migration of planets and mathematical modeling. "Our work has shown that otgadka lies in the giant planets, which are transported over long distances in the early stages of the formation of the solar system," — said David O'Brien (David O'Brien), author of the article in the latest issue of the journal Nature.
Not a stone was left
By computing researchers have shown that the formation of terrestrial planets in the near field of the Sun billions of years ago could intervene Jupiter. According to the calculations, being formed from a protoplanetary disk, Jupiter first migrated from the outskirts of the solar system to orbit the Earth today, and then turned back. Return migration, according to scientists, was to begin simultaneously with the formation of Saturn. Away from the Sun, Jupiter, as the "elephant in the room" to disturb the distribution of matter in the inner regions of the protoplanetary disk, leaving the future of the terrestrial planets, "birth trauma."
"If Jupiter is really close to their place of birth to the orbit of 1.5 astronomical units (1 AU is the distance from the Earth to the Sun), and then turned to the place of the current situation, he had to clean out the hole in the distribution of solid particles in the inner solar system. This explains the current low mass of Mars "- said Kevin Walsh, author of the study from the observatory at Nice. However, scientists puzzled as migration between the orbits of Jupiter 2 to 4 astronomical units could fit in with the existence today between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars, the asteroid belt known.
But "the asteroid belt, which was our first major challenge was the backbone of our model," — said O'Brien.
Further calculations showed that the model of return migration of Jupiter does not contradict the existence of the asteroid belt today, and explains some of its properties. Astronomers know that the part closest to the Sun Belt inhabited bodies, poor light elements (S-type), and asteroids rich in light elements (C-type) inhabit mainly the outer part of the belt. Calculations showed that the residents of the inner part of the belt have been brought there from a distance of 1? 3 au from the sun and outer asteroids generally entered Jupiter from the outskirts of the solar system. This explains the observed difference in our days in the composition of asteroids.