The idea of the International Space Station (ISS), "Alpha" originated in the early 90's. August 15, 1995 company "Boeing", the head of NASA contractor on the program, "Alpha", and the State Research and Production Space Center of MV Khrunichev (GKNPTSH) signed a contract worth $ 190 million, provides for the construction and placing into orbit the nucleus of the future space station. The project involved the European Space Agency (ESA), Canada and Japan. Total internal volume of the station after assembly in orbit will be 1,217 cubic meters, weight — 377 tons, of which 140 tons — Russian components, 237 tons — U.S.. The expected time of the station in orbit — 15 years. The Americans have already completed the assembly of scientific laboratory length 8.5 m and set to work on the accommodation module. In a high degree of readiness are connecting blocks "of nodes-1" and "2 of nodes." As part of the "Alpha" big burden will fall on the space shuttle (ICC) "Discovery", "Atlantis" and "Endeavour". During one flight each of them is able to deliver in orbit "Alpha" to 21300 kg of cargo. Total costs for the creation of Russian plant components are estimated 2 to 3.5 billion dollars.
ESA, a program 1.98 billion in the period from 1996 to 2004. Germany's contribution is 780 million, France — 520 million, the remaining amount contribute Italy, Belgium and Spain. Europeans are developing laboratory "Columbus" and the Automated Transfer Vehicle ATV under PH "Ariane 5".
Construction of the "Alpha" began in November 1998, when the "Proton" orbited FGB. In December 1998, the ICC "Endeavour" delivered a connecting block "of nodes-1." An airtight adapter "of nodes-1" will be docked to the FGB, the other adapter will be used "space shuttle" in the early stages of the construction of the ISS.
To maintain the station in good condition needed annually 170 man-hours in space and four to five flights IWC.
The main directions of research on board the ISS, "Alpha" are:
— Basic research, production materials and biological products in microgravity;
— Study of the atmosphere and the earth's surface in the interest of basic science and applied purposes;
— Study of the behavior of the human body during space flight in terms of defining the strategy for further development of human space (orbital facilities, production in orbit, interplanetary travel, planetary bases, etc.);
— Research and development of tools for the benefit of future projects (the study of the behavior of structures, cable systems, elements of space ships, etc.).
2. What are you listening
Channel Space-to-Earth. The everyday work of our astronauts. Sometimes conversations with the family.
3. Now just get down to business
Option 1 (youth).
144 MHz antenna for satellites. In this case, too, will come up.
Works, as the experience is very good. The antenna tested, in particular, on links through amateur radio satellites. The antenna design is simple and easily repeatable. Input impedance of it — 75 ohms. The horizontal circular diagram in the vertical — in the form of eight. Throughout the course of the satellite signal relay was approximately the same (except for the failures when it rotates and taken from Earth at least). Of course, this antenna can be used in normal relations to 2 meters.
If you do not want to, you can make yourself a more simple, but less effective antenna:
Option 2 (economical).
Vertical pin (pin borehole, thick copper wire) 45-50 cm long, and the counterweight 3 of the same length at an angle of 90 relative to the pin. The pin is electrically connected to the cable center conductor, braided with counterweights. Pin and balances are not electrically connected to each other, as well as the coaxial cable center conductor with braid. Mechanical attachment of us think. Bear in mind that the presence of a normal insulator (radio ceramics, teflon, getinaks, PCB, plastic) that separates the pin from the balances required.
Option 3 (stole grandmother knitting needles).
Vertical pin length 45-50 cm, electrically coupled to the central cable conductor and a counterweight (45-50 cm) connected to a braid extending downwards. The antenna can be positioned with the letter T, ie, its elements are parallel to the ground (in this case, you will somewhat reduce the number of urban noise). In any case, at least 45-50 inches of coaxial cable should be fed to a central point at the feed point of the antenna perpendicular to its elements. Mechanical attachment of us think. Bear in mind that the presence of a normal insulator (radio ceramics, teflon, getinaks, PCB, plastic) that separates the pin on the counterweight necessary.
Option 4 (lazy).
Use standard automotive whip antenna with magnetic base. Changing it to the desired size (45-50 cm) by removing or shorting the coils of the matching coil, if present in the antenna design, and putting the antenna on the well-conductive surface (sheet of tin, aluminum, copper, etc.).
Option 5 (Business).
Buy branded, non-directional antenna. The main thing that catches the band 140-145 MHz. Mounting, manual, check attached.
It is desirable to higher and further away from the ground, roofs, metal, wires, poles, barriers, etc. The antenna should "breathe." After all, you work with the ISS as it flies over you in the line of sight. Accordingly draw conclusions. All of the above antenna suitable for monitoring other frequencies, services, paging companies, telephone trunks, etc., etc.
In this case, either. The main thing that the high-frequency and coaxial. 50 or 75 ohms in this case is not critical. Good screen (shield), soldering required.
Scanner or a radio station on the frequency 143.625 MHz. Preferably with good selectivity. The fact that cities transmitters paging companies often create very large noise.
Well, it seems that's all. They fly over me in my 4 times a day. They work on the air is not constant. Because as a "stray" is not the geostationary orbit. Special laws in telecommunications have not noticed, when a broadcast. Programs for work with satellites, showing their orbit, I have not helped. The program shows the ISS over Australia, and I can hear them. Different programs show a different location. Perhaps the base of the satellite orbits curves may the programs themselves. In the setting things right. I will experiment further. So wait and ye shall find, and listen about how rotten quail eggs delivered to the board for experimentation and pulls like a game of "blevantin" of weightlessness. Or maybe you hear about what the media will never tell. Oh, I almost forgot. And God forbid you, "take this opportunity to" say hello "Children of Earth" from "Children console."
PS: Please professionals, "experts" hams "irons", "FIDOrasov" (some users FIDO), and just unhealthy people do not "throw grub" and does not overwhelm the angry spam. In my stories, I try as much as possible, easier, user friendly and easier to sanctify certain issues. Not sypya with left and right technical terms, comprehensible only one I slang and do not plagiarize, reprinting the same article, which is already 5 years old, signing with your name. For constructive criticism, tips, information, I will be very grateful.
— Here you can see where the ISS is flying now.