After the revolution, 15-year-old boy — the son of a peasant Vologda Kohl Kuznetsov — volunteered in the North Dvina Flotilla. To be a man-of-war's man, had to add yourself to two years. The tall boy came down for seventeen, and was assigned to all kinds of allowances. After civilian war he studied at the Naval Academy. When Nikolai Kuznetsov arrived in Petrograd at the school, past the famous Naval College, where bedding is not erased derived snow-white paint the names of owners: Prince Lieven, Prince Troubetzkoy and other noble families, and textbooks could find autographs Butakova Kolchak, he was only 16 years old. All the teachers were officers pravitelskogo production and carriers of century-old traditions of the Russian Navy. Kumachovym rootless click here will get you nowhere. The Navy aristocracy not only rezultativen, and salutary. Kuznetsov was sent to join the broken shootings tradition of Peter attendants — the nobility. The school was all true: the picture, and the memory of the heroic Russian Navy, and the tradition, for the fleet keeps on fidelity and purity of relationships. And no matter what kind of falsehood perished in the sea air of the school. Spirit of the Sea Cadet Corps cadets left a legacy selfless love of the Russian Federation and the same faith in the truth. View of the town on the estuary of the river and the wall abounding school that beheld all Russian naval commanders and kings, aesthetically forms the souls of sailors. Of course, the years spent in school, have had an impact on the formation of strongest personality of the young Nikolai Kuznetsov.
After graduating from college with a difference, Nicholas refused to staff positions and was assigned to the Black Sea Fleet — was appointed to the cruiser "Red Ukraine". It turns young commander passed all stages of the naval service. On October 1, 1927 by May 4, 1932 NG Kuznetsov was trained at the Naval Academy, which also ended with a difference and with the right choice of the fleet. Kuznetsov once again chose a dark sea and went to serve as a senior assistant of the new cruiser "Reddish Caucasus." Preserved memoirs of the 1st of fellow Kuznetsova the time: "After a six-month absence I turned on the cruiser" Reddish Caucasus. "Saw the new XO NG Kuznetsov and just marveled at the changes occurring. Fully developed a clear day or daily, which was not before. Up to Minutka observed station bill.'s team perfectly clean working dress. Everything that everyone should be, done on time — the dismissal, lunch, bath. tents And in the heat of the roads? Previously they hardly had time to put in two or three hours — right now for the team "to anchor" was the command "put an awning." And for 15-18 minutes all the decks were under tents. New XO was closer to the team than his predecessors, he drank a sailor's life. He had no arrogance, which still preserved some people got from an old fleet.
For the first time the new XO urged all commanders of combat units, and of us, the flagship of professionals to create a method of training. Previously, there was no technique. Veterans were taught to the young, as well as what needs to be done. But it applies to individuals. A unit acts? And the interaction? A teaching martial parts of the ship as a whole? Everything, in fact, began with the cruiser "Reddish Caucasus." Fully this work Kuznetsov launched when he became commander of the cruiser "Red Ukraine". All later resulted in a "course of combat training" on the scale of the fleet. We then just "born" Bums — temporary charter of Marine Combat Forces. Academy worked on him. A "Course on the ship" — the initiative and reward Kuznetsova. "
Here, on the Black Sea, Kuznetsov took command of the cruiser "Red Ukraine". His dream has come true. At 29, he became the commander of the cruiser, and one in 30 — brought "own" cruiser for first place in the Naval Forces of the USSR and became the youngest captain of the 1st rank all the seas of the world. For outstanding awards in the organization of surface and submarine naval forces of the Red Army and for the successes in combat and political training of sailors (for first place in all types of combat training cruiser "Red Ukraine") in December 1935 NG Kuznetsov was awarded the Order of the Red Star. It would seem that all the objectives have been achieved.
A year later, followed by a sudden order to hand over command of the cruiser and go down in Moscow. Here the young captain was given a new mission, its expected position of the naval attaché and head of naval adviser to the fighting in Spain. Republican Navy had to escort transports to protect them from attack by enemy ships, go raid. And on the ships, and submarines Russian seamen fought many volunteers. Don Nicholas — was the naming of Spain was known for fighting Nikolai Kuznetsov. Later he often read how much he has given Spain. It's one thing classrooms Naval Academy and the Academy, the training of excitement and peaceful camping. Other — war. Navy squadron republic was constantly at sea. Seafarers showed true courage, but this is not written in the newspapers. Radio was silent, and it is a few knew that the entire complex and fundamental work on which is largely dependent on the final struggle, privately operated Kuznetsov. In yet another Spain assist him. Val repression that swept the country in 1937, he passed by. Its activities to assist Spanish fleet was highly appreciated by the Russian government: in 1937 he was awarded the Order of Lenin and the Red Banner.
Upon returning home, he was already waiting for brand new position: first deputy and then commander of the Pacific Fleet. Soon, in 1939, fighting broke out acts of Lake Khasan. Pacific Fleet provide transportation guns, ammunition and military personnel, but did not let go of the young komflota war in Spain. Going into the steppes of fights — just a local conflict, well, there was a great war? One surprise attack aviation can kill a whole squadron, wipe the naval base. In Vladivostok, were the first to bring the training to overcharge a fleet combat readiness. Fleet — hundreds of ships, shore units and aviation. This entire mass is difficult rebuilt for action in time of war, chose the fuel, and ammunition. Instead of different teams from different departments needed a single small signal to the fleet, having received each commander who knew what he should do.
In the midst of battle ships and parts went first directives on operational readiness
. Had to finish the work started already in Moscow, when the Admiral Kuznetsov was appointed Commissar of the Navy of the USSR. It was People's Commissar of 30 5 years: he was the youngest in the Union and the People's Commissar of the first explorer in this position (formerly the People's Commissars were Commissioner Smirnov and Frinovsky security officer, both of whom were active organizers of repression in the Navy, and both have themselves become the victims). Cause of the fleet in almost all were running. The last two predecessor Kuznetsova in the post — a political worker and border guard — in naval affairs did not understand. Required urgent solutions for the shipbuilding program there, fleet management. But first, the People's Commissar continued the work begun by another in the Pacific Fleet. The experience of war with Finland confirmed the correctness of the People's Commissar of the measures taken to increase the combat readiness. Was reprimanded and boils on the discontent of Stalin, all the Smiths continued to prepare the pre-war years fleet to the war. NG Kuznetsov had a number of large exercises, personally visited a great number of ships, solving organizational and personnel matters. Became a pioneer in the discovery of new marine and maritime schools special schools (later Nakhimov schools). With his active participation in disciplinary and ship charters Navy.
Began in 1941 year, and the first order, came out of the People's Commissariat of the Navy, sought to open fire anti-aircraft batteries in the event of foreign aircraft over our bases. In the North and Baltic Sea were flying their vengeance German reconnaissance planes. In March, the German intelligence agents fired over Liepaja, Libau and the Arctic. For care in guarding the border commissar received … reprimand. Developed main naval headquarters on the personal instructions of the Navy Commissar system operational readiness of the Navy, allowing in the shortest possible time to meet the necessary measures to translate stealth naval forces in the state of immediate readiness to repel a sudden attack of the enemy, was exceptional personal reward NG Kuznetsova, its contribution to the development of the theory of control of the Navy. There were foreseen three degrees of readiness, taking into account the technical condition and the level of battle training ships and units of the fleet. Regardless of this, they could be in combat nucleus (from which appointed duty forces) or in reserve.
Operational readiness to number 3 corresponded daily level, entities, ships and units of the fleet, and supplies of material resources — the availability of their minimum level. According to the operational readiness of number two crews were fighting the kernel is on the ships and in parts, supplies for ships taken absolutely, weapons ready for use to deploy additional naval patrols. Intensified air reconnaissance of the sea, accelerated repair reserve ships. According to the operational readiness of number 1 provides an immediate application of the gun. State of the fighting was in the nucleus hour readiness to sail to meet the challenges of the current operational plans. Declared the mobilization of bonded structure.
By mid-June 1941 with Germany increasingly magnified. After evaluating the current situation, NG Kuznetsov decided by his order to increase the combat readiness of the fleets. Admiral Kuznetsov, not even at the risk of a career, and his head in these days of an order that transferred all of the fleet on alert number 2, gave the order to disperse the bases and compounds enhance the strength and monitoring water and air, to prohibit the dismissal of personnel of the parts and vehicles. Ships have taken the necessary supplies, tidied the real part, stood in readiness for battle and campaign.
June 19, 1941 Baltic and Northern fleets were transferred to the operational readiness of number 2. June 20 The Black Sea Fleet graduated from teaching and returned from the region of Odessa Sevastopol. The fleet was ordered to remain in the operational readiness of number 2. Summaries of the Head of the Naval Staff Commissar of Defense and the Chief of the General Staff were made aware of the transfer of naval forces from 19 June 1941 to the operational readiness of number 2. Against held in Navy activities to increase alertness were no objections, but there was no endorsement. Until recently, the People's Commissar of Defense directive did not target the commanders of military districts to increase the readiness that played a fateful role in the initial stage majestically Russian war.
Exclusively at 23.00 on June 21 Commissar of Defense, Marshal Timoshenko said Kuznetsov of the likely attack that night fascists. Fleets immediately was declared operational readiness number 1. And at midnight navy were ready to repel aggression. The Navy in the first 3 hours and 15 minutes fire attack met the enemy, and did not lose any of the 1st ship or aircraft. Almost seafarers and fleet have been saved from destruction. And at 5:00 in the morning at your own risk Commissar of the Navy ordered transferred to the Navy that Germany started the attack on our bases and ports, which should reflect the power of the gun. Then, at three in the morning on June 22, reported to the Kremlin about the raid on Sevastopol, the Admiral Kuznetsov, without waiting for instructions from the top, gave the order to all fleets, "immediately begin staging minefields on the plan cover." Released into the sea covered the mine-sweepers ring our base, banks have put mine in the ways of German convoys. Fleets and fleets began to act in accordance with the pre-war plans of defense. In its most difficult August 1941, at his suggestion, naval aviation bombed 10 times in Berlin!
Here's what he wrote about the initial period of the war NG Kuznetsov: "More seriously, deeply, with all the responsibility should be dismantled prerequisites failures, errors in the first days of the war. These errors are not on the conscience of the people who survived the war and kept in mind the sacred memory of those who have not returned home. These errors are to a large extent on our conscience, the conscience of managers at all levels. And that they should not be repeated and should not be hushed up, do not shift to the souls of the dead, and courageously, honestly admit it. For the repetition of past mistakes — is a crime … Of- Due to the fact that there was no clear organization of the center, many issues remained unresolved and in the field. " And here's another: "Long we were paying for organizational unpreparedness in the first year War. Why did all this happen? It seems to me, as there was no clear regulation of the rights and obligations within large, military leaders and senior officials. And yet specifically they had to know their place and limits of responsibility for the fate of the country. After all, at that time we were already convinced that in the coming war fighting operations will begin from its first hours or even minutes. "
Operational and strategic use of the Navy and the nature of its tasks during the Russian war majestically determined minded continental war. The fleet began to make the necessary subordinate ground forces work: the ships, aviation, coastal defense and marine units, closely interacting with the ground forces, exerted all possible assistance to areas in the coastal areas. Naval aviation redirected against armored enemy forces and enemy aircraft, surface ships were involved in the fire support groups coastal flanks of the Red Army. The fleet was carrying millions of people, millions of tons of various cargoes. In October 1941, the fleets and flotillas were formed 25 marine infantry brigades that took part in the Battle of Moscow, and then in all the battles and comings of our troops to Berlin. The main objective of NG Kuznetsova during this period is to ensure that the army and navy in the coastal areas.
Admiral NG Kuznetsov as GHQ representative went on fleets and front to personally manage operations more accountable. The interaction between the coastal parts of the Army and the Navy had to work practically in the process of fighting.
To the main objectives of the People's Commissar of the Navy during the war also include organizations harness the allied convoys carrying supplies under the Lend-Lease Act in the northern ports of the Soviet Union. Kuznetsov personally produced coordination of the North Sea, Air and Air Defense Forces a reserve to protect convoys from enemy attacks. In 1944, due to the configuration of the situation at the front, and changed the nature of naval operations. Their goal was the role in the liberation of the coast and the coastal cities. Varied and Management. March 31, 1944 a directive was issued Bets of the purpose of the People's Commissar of the Navy Admiral of the Fleet NG Kuznetsova Chief of Navy with direct subordination to him fleets and fleets. Special page usage of NG Kuznetsova during the war was his role in the negotiations with the naval missions allies in 1941-1945., As well as a member of the Russian delegation — in conferences of Heads of State in Yalta and Potsdam.
In 1944, the other day majestically victory, he only received a new higher rank "Admiral fleet, "equated to the rank of Marshal of the Russian Union. From 9 large strategic offensive operations carried out by the armed forces of the USSR during the stateliness Russian war — 6 of them participated fleets and fleets of the Navy. During the war they sank above 1,200 warships and auxiliary vessels, 1300 transports have landed more than 110 operational and tactical assault in which involved a total of more than 250 thousand difficulties people. Northern Fleet has provided protection 77 Allied convoys in the 1464 ocean transports.
For the Commander of the Navy, Admiral of the Fleet NG Kuznetsova, the war is not ended May 9, 1945 he went to the Far East for the organization of interaction of the Pacific Fleet and the Amur Flotilla with parts of the Red Army in the war with Japan. September 14, 1945 Nikolai Gerasimov was the hero of the Union of Russian for "heroic achievement shown by the performance of tasks by the Supreme Command of the combat operations of the fleet and achieved as a result of these operations progress."
In September 1945, Kuznetsov has prepared and submitted to the government ten-year construction program from the Navy, which included the creation of aircraft carriers — cruisers with a 9-inch guns, new submarines and destroyers. A question was raised about the protection of the fleet and naval bases on atomic weapons. Thrust admiral on reports in the Kremlin continued to remember the leader of the unresolved dilemmas of the fleet. Stalin only unhappy frowning and slowly began to alienate himself from the Kuznetsov. At all times, enough careerists and villains. In the wake of revelations of scoundrels careers, envious settle scores. Found itself in the People's Commissariat of the Navy. One of the captains of rank 1 reported that during the war the Allies, the British were officially handed over blueprints parachute torpedo. The People's Commissar of the Navy, as he could not allow repression in their own unit, defended the officers. And here he came under attack.
In 1947, the Admiral Kuznetsov, was removed from the post of Commissar of the Navy. Under the tribunal got past the war four admirals: N. Kuznetsov, L. Haller, W. Alafuzov and Stepanov. Three of them stripped of all military ranks and municipal awards and sent to the camps. Kuznetsova demoted to rear admiral, defining duty station Far East. Maybe shook the hand of the leader, signing the verdict sheet, may, Stalin decided to teach a lesson stubborn.
Far East "link" lasted three years. Then, on the last turn of the east of the country, began to ascend flotovodcheskaya star Kuznetsova, here he returned to continue the service. It is not bypassed orders in due time to the second time he got one more title of vice-admiral. In 1951, Stalin suddenly Kuznetsova returns to Moscow and appointed naval minister of the USSR. Acquired from the chief lesson did not go Kuznetsov future use. September 1, he sent the President a report on the TRC outdated fleet of ships, constructed on an old project, the need for a number of large and immediate action on the fleet. All requests and petitions of the Navy as if left in the sand. And yet, almost all of it managed: started the development of tools for jet fleet, made new designs of ships and submarines.
In 1953, after the death of Stalin, the verdict of the Supreme Board of February 1948 was canceled and the case for lack of admirals in the affairs of the creation of the crime stopped. Kuznetsova returned to the same military rank of Admiral of the fleet gained during the war. It seemed that all the failures already behind. Approved the project and begin construction of the first nuclear submarine. Admiral again raised to the Minister of Defence and the Government of the need to consider programs from shipbuilding for the Navy. It is assigned a new, just set the title — Admiral of the Fleet Russian Union and the marshal's star — and all this in 50 years, in the prime of life and leadership talent.
But it did not work out at the Admiral of the case and with the change of Stalin Nikita Khrushchev. On the orders of the stocks were cut for scrap ready to walk down the cruiser. The years have not trained in Moscow, Admiral diplomacy, resourcefulness or even obsequious silence. Won victories at sea, he did not notice and did not know how to bypass the numerous underwater stones in the corridors of power. In 1955, there was an explosion on the battleship "Novorossiisk" ship sank. The last Italian ship that we have acquired after winning the reparations, became part of the Black Sea Fleet. Clarity in the causes of the disaster is not until this time. Two main versions: the explosion set the Germans still in the bay bottom mine and the undermining of the battleship as a result of sabotage carried out by a group of frogmen. Culprit in the explosion on the battleship found a swiftly. The past few months earlier on leave for illness Navy Commander was removed from the post of Deputy Minister of Defense — Navy chief, demoted to the rank of rear admiral and dismissed.
The former commander in chief of the Navy, the war hero generously put retire in three rubles. In those years, received more capital tram driver. The country celebrated the anniversaries of victory, honored heroes, and at the dacha outside Moscow Nikolai Gerasimov Kuznetsov on an old typewriter every day or a day "tapped out" pages of memoirs: "The extraordinary dismissal me down made a lot of problems. How much, or significant accumulations I did not have.'s Two sons schoolboy has sought help and attention. burnished it was unreal all suspiciously looked at me — as if something happens. It was then that the only real method to earn slightly to the pension became foreign language knowledge. began to teach British (formerly known Spanish, French and German), and a year later could translate some articles for the magazine "Military Gazette." In life, justice for the disgraced admiral has not triumphed. rank of Admiral Kuznetsov Russian Union returned only in 1988, 14 years after his death. history, our memory and honor all deserved reward! not broken memory of the admiral would call in the current swimming boys who dream to behold the oceans and the sea, the town and the country, to serve their own homeland.