PPD is not contrary to legend copied from Finnish "Suomi"
For 2010 year fall immediately two significant anniversaries: 75 years ago, was adopted by the sub-machine gun of VA Degtyarev and 70 years ago — a submachine gun system GS Shpagin. In the fate of PPD and PCA reflected the dramatic history of this type of Russian weapons recently majestically Russian war and its exceptional role in the opposition to the Soviet-German front.
Sub-machine guns began to arrive in the infantry during World War II. Implementation pistol cartridge allowed to make a new type of automatic small guns, enough compact in size and relatively small mass, from which it was possible to carry dense fire in close combat. However, outside of the "near" distances the performance characteristics of the submachine guns proved quite moderate. It's almost all over the determined attitude to newcomer weapons in a number of armies, including the Red Army, as a kind of aids.
Not just for the gangsters and COPS
In general, world-wide distribution of "neglect" of the Russian military command to the sub-machine guns, to put it mildly, very exaggerated. More October 27, 1925, the Commission on weapons of the Red Army, said: "… consider it necessary to junior and middle chain of command to re-automatic sub-machine gun, leaving the revolver in service of the senior and senior command staff." December 28, 1926 the Artillery Committee of the Red Army Ordnance Department approved the technical conditions at the ready submachine guns.
Elapsed time is quite insignificant, and in 1927 by FV Tokarev, who worked at that time in the Design Bureau First Tula Arms Factory, presented his own standard submachine gun — the so-called light carbine. But it was carried out under more affordable then the 7.62-mm revolver cartridge "revolver", is not suited to the gun. Meanwhile, in the Russian Union were already working on the self-loading pistol and July 7, 1928 the Artillery Committee suggested using pistols and submachine guns, 7.63 mm cartridge "Mauser."
In the Report of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR in December 1929 stated: "The system adopted provides for the Red Army infantry weapons in the near future, the introduction of automatic weapons on semi-automatic rifle … semi-automatic pistol … submachine gun as massive automatic weapon close combat (there are standards, shop for 20-25 rounds, range — 400-500 meters). " The main weapon was to be a rifle under a powerful rifle cartridge, the subsidiary — a submachine gun pistol cartridge. In 1930 he received the 7.62-mm pistol cartridge (7.62 x 25) — the Russian version of the 7.63 mm cartridge "Mauser." Under it and started the development of the submachine guns.
Already in June and July 1930 on the orders of the Deputy People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs IP Uborevicha commission headed by division commander VF Grushetskaya spends on Scientific Testing arms firing range tests of self-loading pistols and submachine guns experienced. These were the standards development FV Tokarev a revolver cartridge "revolver," VA Degtyarev (he was then headed by Design Bureau Kovrovskogo plant number 2, then — Municipal union plant number 2 named Kirkizha KO) and C . Korovin — a pistol cartridge. Immediately pass a similar practice test zabugornye pistols and submachine guns.
Overall, the results of the first Russian submachine guns proved to be unsatisfactory. Failures in the middle of the circumstances referred to the discrepancy between the capacity pistol cartridge, the highest rate of fire and a very limited voice samples that did not allow to reach the applicable accuracy.
With all of this to the sub-machine guns as ever belonged versatile. For example, at the plenary session of the Scientific and Technical Committee of the Artillery Control December 14, 1930 stated: "Sub-machine guns are used in the current time priemuschestvenno in the police and internal security forces. For the purposes of fighting the Germans and the Yankees are not recognized quite perfect. " Such an outlook was confirmed by the fact that in Weimar Germany pistols, machine guns and MR.18 MR.28 supplied police units. A South American Thompson submachine gun, which, though designed as an army weapon, "famous" in the main during the raids and gang warfare, operations and guardians of law and order. There was even an subsequent point of view: they say, in the arms of the Red Army "submachine gun did not appear on the requirements, and due to the fact that such a standard was made and tried to apply it to the system." But these conclusions are not cut short the work of Russian designers.
In 1932-1933, proving ground tests were 14 samples of 7.62-mm submachine gun presented including FV Tokarev, VA Degtyarev, S. Korovin, SA PRILUTSKIY, J. H . Kolesnikov. More successful were considered "child" Degtyareva and Tokarev. Ordnance Department in January 1934 noted Dehtiarivska submachine gun as the best in combat and operational qualities. He did not have the highest rate of fire, but it stood out more grouping and manufacturability. Typically, the introduction of a significant number of parts of cylindrical shape (barrel, receiver, barrel shroud, bolt, butt plate), which are produced on universal lathes.
June 9, 1935 order of the USSR People's Commissar of Defense for service of the Red Army adopted "7.62mm submachine gun Degtyarev arr. 1934 (DPP-34). " At first they intended to provide commanders of the Red Army.
PDP-34 treated specimens of the traditional "Karabina" assembly of the German still MR.18 / I, with wood lodge and a cylindrical perforated barrel shroud. Automatic submachine gun operated by the energy of the impact of free slide. The trigger PPD made a separate assembly that allowed the automatic start and a single lamp translator flag is placed in front of the trigger guard. Shot made on the rear sear in other words, when the shutter is open. In the form of non-automatic safety latch located on the handle of the gate and blocked it in the front or rear position. Detachable box magazine sector form was attached at the bottom. Sector sight was notched at a range of 50 to 500 m from so overpriced for the submachine guns distance precision fire will give up only during majestically Russian war.
In 1934, the Highland plant number 2 made 44 RPM, in 1935 — a total of 23, in 1936 — 911, in 1937 — 1291 to 1938 — 1115 to 1939 — 1700. If in 1937 and 1938 produced 3,085,000 magazine rifles (excluding sniper), the PPD — 4106. This gives an indication of the place assigned to the submachine gun weapon system in the Red Army.
Along the way, lasted rework PDP, and in 1939 the Artillery Artillery Committee approved the management prepared by the number 2 configurations in the drawings with a submachine gun. Cannon received the designation "submachine gun obr.1934/38 city." In this standard PPD strengthened mount the store, setting a further neck to secure it, worked for the interchangeability of shops, hard-faced landing sight. Then the Artillery Committee pointed out that "it is necessary to introduce it into service certain categories of soldiers of the Red Army, the NKVD border guards, machine-gun and artillery calculations, some professionals, airborne troops, car drivers and so forth."
ut reason. During the war years of 1932-1935 between Bolivia and Paraguay for the first time quite extensively used sub-machine guns of various systems, while not free of success. They were used in civilian war in Spain (1936-1939). Soon nasty familiarity with the Finnish "Suomi» m/1931 had experienced soldiers of the Red Army. It came during a three-month "neznamenitoy" campaign of 1939-1940.
But specifically in 1939, the fate of the PDP was called into question. At the initiative of the People's Commissariat of Defense open a discussion on the termination of production of submachine guns. And nine months before the start of the Soviet-Finnish War, they were removed from parts of the Red Army and sent to the warehousing and border troops of the NKVD. Often it is trying to explain the "tyranny" Chief Artillery Directorate, First Deputy People's Commissar of Defense, GI Kulik. But at the same time one can not direct attention to the report on the production of automatic small gun at the enterprises of the People's Commissariat of arms in 1939. This document stated that the ready PPD should "stop right up to overcome these shortcomings and simplify the design." And suggested: "… the development of a new type of automatic weapons under pistol cartridge to continue for a probable substitute outdated design PPD."
Also in 1939, the most authoritative spec VG Fedorov (book "The Evolution of Small Arms") pointed to the "tremendous future" submachine gun as "a powerful, easy and compared at the same time on a conventional weapon of his own design," the truth, " it provided some improvements. " Fedorov also wrote about the "convergence 2-types, namely rifle and submachine gun" on the basis of the creation of the cartridge "with reduced for rifles and larger for sub-machine guns sighting range." But by the second World War, such holder has not yet appeared. Logically, the machines during the Finnish campaign in the Red Army were called sub-machine guns — a title for them to survive the end of the 40s.
The successful application of the enemy in battle, "Suomi" urgently urged to return to units of the Red Army RPE. From the front came requirement to equip pistols, machine guns on the model of the Finns "at least one branch at a company." The available PPD urgently transferred to the parts of Karelia, and in late December 1939 — a month after the war began — at the direction of the Head of the military council unfolded mass production of submachine guns Degtyareva.
January 6, 1940 decision of the Defence Committee of the improved PPD was adopted by the Red Army.
Highland plant number 2 received special government task — to make the issue of the RPE. To assist in its implementation there sent a team of professionals under the Deputy People's Commissar of arms I. Barsukov. Lock and parts sub-machine gun is actually distributed to all the shops, but in January 1940 the plant has earned shop created for the production of submachine guns. The guilds instrumental department engaged only in the creation of technological equipment and tools that are needed for the release of the RPE.
To reduce the time to create the 1st sub-machine gun in its design have brought a number of configurations:
— number of windows in the housing decreased from 55 to 15, the Donets casing was made separately and are pressed into the tube;
— slide box was made of pipes, block the sight was made separately;
— in the bolt removed the firing pin with a single axis, the striker was motionless in the fortified gate with a pin;
— established a lightweight leaf spring ejector.
Not enough — PPD, as well as "Suomi", added a drum magazine. In general, Degtyarev offered a more conventional way — higher capacity box magazine and 30 rounds of ammunition and simplification of change. While this option, which required the least significant costs, supported by the People's Commissariat of arms control, it was decided to complete PPD specifically drum magazine ("disks").
IA Komaritskii, EV Chernko, VI Silks and VA Degtyarev actually constructed a drum magazine this week. It complemented the neck, inserted into the guide clip RPE. In the end, managed to do without alterations submachine gun. Vpribavok through this magazine capacity was 73 cartridge — two more than the Finnish layout. So a third modification of the PDP, which retained the designation "submachine gun mod. 1934/38 G ". The submachine gun was also fuse flies.
From 22 January 1940 all the shops and offices occupied by the creation of the FPD, was transferred to the three-shift work. The sharp increase in production with a submachine gun could not pass without problems. According BLVannikov, "ready machines more than once vorachivalis with shooting for correction. Those were the days when people worked on correcting more than the assembly. " But gradually the establishment was part of a regular rhythm, and the troops began to get more PPD. However, submachine gun, designed for process equipment factories early 30's, was pricey. His prices can be judged by such figures — one with a set of spare parts PPD, as well as automatic rifle Simonov, costing the state budget is 900 rubles (in prices of 1939), and the DP light machine gun with spare parts — 1150 rubles (although here it is necessary to take into account the already existing establishment rifles and machine guns).
At this time the first units gunmen, including ski — the experience is very useful during the Russian war majestically. Reconnaissance and assault groups, groups of skiers tried abundant supply automatic weapon, the middle of which a submachine gun shown tremendous reliability. VP Shilov, last in the Soviet-Finnish war scout 17-th separate ski battalion, recalled one fight: "Our CBT did not shoot … After the first shots have been fired scouts, but the machines at the platoon leader and pomkomvzvoda were OK, and they fired on the Finns to the last bullet. "
February 15, 1940 VA Degtyarev introduced an upgraded standard PPD, developed with the role of designers SN Kalygin, PE Ivanov, NN Lopukhovsky, EK-rovicha of Alexandria, VA Vvedenskogo ( then the names of these people more than once will be encountered in a number of Kovrov systems), distinguished by subsequent changes:
— up to 71 cartridge magazine capacity decreased due to the substitution of his neck receiver, has become more reliable operation of the feeder;
— to the slide box set front and rear stops store, split the bed is made with a separate fore — hot-top front of the store;
— shutter has motionless striker.
February 21 Defence Committee at the USSR approved the specified configuration, and first of March they were introduced in the establishment. Thus was the "7.62mm submachine gun system Degtyareva arr. 1940 (DPP-40). " He could either have an open fly or fly with a fuse.
But tests with a submachine gun with immobile striker showed a high percentage of the gate delay, and therefore control of small arms Artupravleniya insisted on a return to the old-style drummer. That is why from April 1, 1940 went into making a separate version with the same drummer. Total for 1940 was issued 81 118 RPM, so that the largest mass was the fourth production version of a submachine gun Degtyarev — PDP-40.
The general appearance of the submachine guns in the army at the end of the Soviet-Finnish war and adoption in 1940, PPD-40 magazine with 71 rounds facilitated the birth of the legend that Degtyarev copied his design from "Suomi" systems A. Lahti. Meanwhile fairly easy to disassemble part-2-of these sampl
es belong to the same generation of submachine guns, that behold, that the relationship between PPD and "Suomi" is very far away. But the drum magazine first really got the second one, though with alterations.
Trophy same "Suomi" and later used of the Red Army, and at times even played the role of … PPD in Russian film into the war — for example in "The Actress" in 1943 or "Invasion" of 1945.
BASIC Properties PPD OBR. 1934
7,62 x25 TT
Weight of gun with ammo 3.66 kg
Length 778 mm guns
Barrel length 278 mm
The initial velocity of 500 m / s
Rate of fire 750-900 rounds / min
Combat rate of one. / Auto. 30/100 rounds / min
Effective range 500 m
Magazine capacity 25 rounds
"Made in Leningrad"
In 1940, the ratio for submachine gun changed. He was listed as an auxiliary tool before, but the degree of saturation of the troops increased. Typically, for example, the instruction in speech, the inspector general of infantry Lieutenant General AK Smirnov meeting, senior management of the Red Army in December 1940 that "the fission of our (small) separating two link" in their composition could be "and automatic rifles and sub-machine guns." At the same meeting, the head of the military training of the Red Army, Lieutenant General VN Kurdyumov give account on the offensive battle (assuming the coming of Russian infantry corps to defend the German infantry division): "Our body will be coming in the first echelon of the attacking platoon 72, 2880 infantry and 288 light machine guns, 576 RPM … An average of one kilometer of the front will be attacking people in 2888 to 78 people defense, machine guns and submachine guns — 100 to 26 … "
In the last pre-war May Day parade in 1941 on Red Square marched division fighters armed PDP-40. But to replace the PDP has already come gun-gun GS Shpagin …
In the initial period of the establishment of Russian majestically PPD returned to Leningrad. In Kavrov same shop at the Experimental department head designer collected about 5000 RPM on the remaining backlog of parts. And in a town on the Neva River at the base of the exported equipment there Sestroretsky tool plant named after SP Voskova launched anew release PPD-40, leading him virtually by hand. In December 1941, when Leningrad was already surrounded, this work joins Plant named after A. Kulakov. Total in 1941-1942 in St. Petersburg made a 42,870 RPM-40, which were used in the troops of the Leningrad and Karelian Front. One of these PDP-40 is stored in the Artillery Museum. On the butt with a submachine gun strengthened label: "Made in Leningrad during the blockade of the enemy. In 1942. " Many PPD Leningrad production sector had instead lightweight folding sight.
By the way, the factory name Voskova Kulakov and served as a good base for mass production of another sub-machine gun — PPP.
BASIC Properties PPD OBR. 1940
7,62 x25 TT
Weight of gun with cartridges 5.4 kg
Length 778 mm guns
Barrel length 278 mm
The initial velocity of 500 m / s
Rate of fire 900-1100 rounds / min
Combat rate of one. / Auto. 30/100-120 rds / min
Effective range 500 m
Magazine capacity 71 rounds