It was this: while the Americans moved through the rain forests of the eastern half of his continent, while they have not yet reached the Mississippi, they raged mainly on the local population — the Indians.
The Indians were farmers, had fields and built large houses, quickly took over from the British and French guns, resisted as best they could, but they were unable to organize. Later consistently tribe for tribe wiped Americans, who had a good organization. This organization was the fact that White knew that defer to their state governors and their colonels necessary, this makes sense, and although it is currently not good, but then pay back.
And this wave crossed the Mississippi and began to spread the American prairie, and the prairie — it is about our Kazakh steppe, with the only difference that it is not grazed herds of antelope and buffalo herds. The Indians of the buffalo could not destroy. They could not use the vast reserves of free meat as long as they did not have horses because loaded walk in the steppe not pass. Water should take, and it's heavy. Therefore, they lived on the banks of the rivers and on the hunt went just very close. A bison graze safely across the prairie from the Rio Grande to southern Canada to the border of the forest, and their growth was limited only to epidemics that kill them in large numbers because of overcrowding. Sometimes they cut the large gray coyotes.
The Spanish horses brought to America, and as they were tending their negligence, much of the horses ran into the prairie. There are wild and began to walk in the wilderness, as typical wild horses and herds. The Indians realized that it is profitable for them, began to catch the horses and re-domesticate them — they were mustangs. Moreover, the Indians were men of the prairies. They fully perceive the achievements of European culture. They learned to ride much better Europeans, because those tribes that had time to catch the Mustangs and tame them, to teach their children to ride the four years, so that, coming of age, they are on the horse felt like our Mongols did not worse. In this regard, they were able to stray too far from the river and kill the buffalo, but they did so with extreme caution.
Just at a time when Europeans preached immensity of nature and the theory of progress, according to which it is necessary to destroy harmful animals and save useful (as if anyone knows who is bad and who is useful), the Indians in the conviction that the Great Spirit is not created nothing wrong. All that he had made, all must exist. And kill just like that, not for the food, can only crazy. We are now, with our positions Conservation completely share the view of the Sioux Indians, but at the time they prove this truth no one could. And as they were protesting against the senseless killing of buffalo, not killing for their meat and for hides, leather, manufacturers are exported, they killed themselves (see: Douglas W. O. Three hundred war. Chronicle ecological disaster. M., 1975. C . 153.). That was in the 70's of the XIX century, the so-called "Indian War."
Unfortunately America, the progress of technology has reached such an extent that the Americans had a transcontinental railroad and became completely free ride from New York to San Francisco. On the way, passing gentlemen amused himself by shooting buffalo, unable to even pick them up. Just having fun shooting. Killed and wounded animals. Buffalo fell and died. Sometimes, when the train stopped, the passengers, killing several hundred bison, cut out some of the languages to be fried, but the meat and even skin left. They were rich, they did not need it. As a result, bison herds were reduced to such an extent that almost steppe bison died, along with the bison were killed and the Indians have adapted to the systematic and regular hunting buffalo.
But it never happens that the "sacred place" remained empty. There were enterprising Americans who brought the sheep here, and decided that the sheep eat the grass. But if you do not connect small buffalo wolf, and is available only to large, then it may well be a sheep production jackal (call them coyotes), and jackals began to make inroads into flocks of sheep, rather reducing their numbers. I had to go to the cattle, and then appeared on the site of the Indian tribes, such groups — so-called "cowboys", and they have created a substantially sub-ethnic group of Americans.
They lived in their small towns for a long time, sometimes for life. Their children were to live there, they did not take the culture, literacy was no need to teach them, and to what, to them it was not interesting. They herded cattle from an early age, learning to fire a long-barreled guns and drink gin in large numbers, and kill those Indians who still survived. Then he created a romantic image of a cowboy for literature and cinema, there were cowboy movies, cowboy literature.
But nature takes its revenge. While bred cows, squirrels that live there in large numbers, have to eat the rest of the buffalo grass, and coyotes, of course, eating gophers. But squirrels multiply faster. And the number of pastures has decreased dramatically. In addition, the hole that they dug in the desert rodents are very dangerous for large animals — horses and even cows. Those, if they fall into a hole with his foot, then break a leg, and an animal with a broken leg is subject to immediate slaughter (ie, squirrels took advantage of that we have created a pioneering Anglo-Saxon). Moreover, the cowboy economy can not compete with a planned economy meat States, competing with Argentina and Venezuela, where the cows were in place more favorable. I had to go to farming.
Then the Americans became the richest grain exporting nation, killed our Russian competition of southern landowners who previously exported through Odessa a lot of bread. American grain — maize and wheat — were at that time is so cheap that they would beat any competition. In order to somehow maintain their prices, the government bought the bread at the lowest prices and destroys it — bread drowned in the sea or burned, not to reduce prices and not to destroy the farmers. Prairie remnant, what is left after the buffalo, sheep, and after after cattle farmers plowed, and then went to dust storms.
The first of these occurred in the 30's of the 20th century and has done untold damage because a strong wind from the west, blowing from the Cordillera, covered with sand and fine dust almost all the gardens and fields of Eastern America. Remove the dust was impossible, and there is no fertility was not. Only then began to oblige farmers to take measures to preserve the landscape, to restore the turf layer to restore the soil. If a farmer refused to do it, which was the inspector, noting that the work is done, the contractor brought. The contractor has been working, and the price of works attributed to the income tax farmer. This they failed to do. And went to a culture, which is also proved to be extremely profitable — to the potatoes.
Potatoes are known to the American plant, but southward, and in the north it almost was not common. But the Americans have planted potatoes, potatoes taken root and started to grow there. Very good! Farmers grew rich, while not advanced their fields on the slopes of the Cordillera, which lived in the bush some bugs with long noses. This beetle is very bad life was, because there were few shrubs, and food is scarce. So they have adapted potato leaves. And along with the potatoes they triumphantly marched across the country, moved to Europe and came to us.
It turns out that the extermination of the Indians, buffalo, rich nature, Dixieland, New England, where the forest turned into a wasteland in the sand dunes — all benefited mainly Colorado beetles, which have mastered a new continent — Europe. So, as you can see, the rule of peaceful inhabitant, golden mediocrity is not always helpful to the environment that feeds us, and part of which we are part.
And do not think that such an attitude to nature is characteristic only of the modern representatives of the so-called civilized world. In earlier times in other peoples encountered the same consumer attitude to nature with equally disastrous results. For 15 thousand years before Christ on earth was empty, and now everywhere you look — the desert. But any desert — is the result of destruction of nature due to human activities, imagines himself its king.
That's how industrious farmers, thinking about the harvest of one year turned into sand dunes beach Etszingola, Khotan-Darya and Lake Lop Nur, loosening the soil and allowed Sahara sandstorm dispel it.
Sugar continued to grow and in ancient times. The fact is that the vast herds of horses, which were necessary for the Roman cavalry were grazing in the foothills of the Atlas at the turn of the Sahara. They trampled the ground so that there is also the beginning of its reign desert, and so far it extends. One example of this — the recent Sahel tragedy.
Generally, it should be noted that the impact on the environment in the ancient time of the Roman peace (Pax Romana) was no less than in our time by the European world, of course, taking into account differences in the level of technology.
To see this, let's see how I came to Rome in the. BC So, what was at the time in Rome? And nothing good. Because Rome has evolved from a small village, where 500 families lived in the victorious "Eternal City", which is spread over a large area and became a metropolis of a million, half million and two million people.
You understand that a city had to be fed, and feeding it was very difficult, because the Roman citizens do not want to work. They have won so many countries is not in order, then to deal with at home boring agricultural labor. They saw themselves as participants in a common cause ("Republic" — a common cause), and believed that if it generates income, they should get their share of this income. And then legionnaires who walked in distant campaigns to the east — to Greece, Syria, the West — to Spain, to the north — in Gaul (modern France), returning with a big booty and getting down and even plots of land, the land holdings quickly guzzle and their prey, too.
By the way, they could not do otherwise, because the trips required of them such emotional stress that they needed rest and relaxation cost much. After rest — it's not just lie under the olive. Relax — it's fun, and they are always money. And they laid all their belongings, guzzle it, and then had to go back, or the legions, or (if they were old, tired and not taken) to receive from the state a living. They were given free bread, because they believed that if they eat bread, they do not disappear. Of course, do not live by bread alone, it is necessary and the olives, oil, and meat to eat, and salty fish, and wine to drink. For this, they get money, serving leaders of various political parties. And the more they served their leaders, those leaders the more they get paid.
As a result, central Italy, who gave birth to this ethnic group, totally changed its landscape. Rich agricultural land turned into pasture for the simple reason that in the bad old days there was no refrigerator and bring meat from somewhere beyond the sea was impossible, it would be spoiled. Therefore, on the massacre in Rome Fit bulls and pigs, so that they immediately cut the meat and immediately sold.
A bread could bring back from Africa, where the valleys of the Atlas were phosphorous soil that gave incredibly high yields. The fruits can be brought from Spain, from southern Gaul, called Provence (literally Province, that conquered country), wine from Greece, bread and even out of Egypt were taken in large quantities, ie all could bring, but two things — fresh meat and flowers for women, for women, I do not know why, love flowers.
As a result, the city of Rome with two million people into a town-parasite who lived through all the conquered provinces and sucked all the juice out of them. It would seem that the province should peter out, grow poor and be a perfect nonentity. Nothing like this! They are, though they plundered their entirety, rich, increased its production and issuing of Rome as much as required bosses, and even themselves and their children left — nothing less than to give.
Due to what was going the prosperity? Through quite ugly robbery nature. Magnificent oak and beech forests in Italy were cut down, and the slopes of the Apennines are covered maquis, Spain, which was covered with beautiful subtropical forests, evolved into the steppe, on which it was only possible to drive the sheep, as in Mongolia, and the Spaniards were pastoral people. In Africa, the richest valley were vypahany. Ceased to give any yield, ie granary of Rome (Africa and Sicily) were bare rocky country, with almost no soil.
Hence it is clear that if we thrive, it is always at the expense of something, but the Romans, like our recent ancestors believed that the wealth of nature are inexhaustible. Their descendants had to make sure that they were wrong. However, to say that they had a good, happy life, it is impossible. It is clear that two million people in Rome created not due to natural reproduction, and even contrary to those demographic trends, which at that time were. In a big city with a lot of all kinds of fun and pleasure, these are free (not just bread given, and free presentation staged for Roman citizens and visitors), women are not very keen to have children. Roman matrons took all measures to keep in shape as long as possible.
Therefore, in Rome, was a negative population growth. Replenished by the same population of people from the province who came, and because there is no registration required, took a corner and find yourself some applications are not always suitable from the point of view of the state. Some become pimps, others — smugglers, and others — the thieves, the fourth — the hired killers, women — prostitutes — who is who. And in huge five-storey houses in Rome they rent rooms or corners. The tightness was terrible. Houses were built poorly, ventilation disgusting, sometimes building fell, burying residents under him, but it is rebuilt as bad, because no one believed dead and did not regret.
True, the Romans made several important technical improvements, they had sewer — sewer system, using a small river, which was called (since then became known as the cloaca any sewage), and on the other hand, did plumbing. Previously, they treated aqueducts, ie put chute on props and it allowed clean water that is constantly exchanging oxygen to the atmosphere. But in the city that you will not spend the aqueducts, and the dirt in the city, the air is bad. So did plumbing. They knew how to make water pipes, but with lead pipes. Wine is also stored in lead containers, and the other was not. Water has become infected with lead oxides. Port wine, and people are constantly slowly poisoned. In short, Rome was a very hard life, people who have suffered, just to do nothing.
This unnatural level of urbanization — a synonym for the inertial phase, when the ethnic group, like Antaeus, loses contact with the ground on which he grew up. On this subject, John Stuart Collins in his book "conquering tree" writes: "St. Paul was right to call the wrath of God upon the heads of the inhabitants of Antioch. Were right and the other prophets, cursed city. But in doing right, they were guided by false motives. The essence of sin was not in its moral aspect, it refers not to theology and to the environment. Excessive pride and luxury would not bring retribution upon men green fields would continue to bear fruit, and the cool clear waters of the bear, which would not have achieved the degree of immorality and lawlessness, high towers would not staggered, and strong walls would not collapse. But people are interred, given to them by God for life, they have sinned against the laws of the earth, destroyed forests and water elements give space — that is why they have no forgiveness, and all of their creations swallowed sand. "
Brilliant, but true! Immorality and lawlessness in the city — a prelude massacre of woods and fields, for the cause of the two — reducing ethno of drive system. When preceding increase of drive feature was hard and to themselves, and to the neighbors. By reducing — characterized by "humanity", first remission weaknesses, then — neglect duty, then — the crimes. A habit of the latter leads to the transference of the "right to disgrace" with people on landscapes. Level of morality ethnic group — the same phenomenon of the natural process of ethnogenesis as overexploitation of wildlife.
In the meantime, we can make hard but logical conclusion. That European evolutionists call "civilization," and we "inertial phase of ethnogenesis" not so harmless and progressive. It turns out to pay for everything. And everywhere, which hosted the inertia phase, civilization sawing off the branch on which it sat. Therefore an inevitable next phase, which no historian or geographer would say a good word.
LNGumilev, "The end and the beginning again."
Published pl Eye on the Planet