Found an interesting article about African medicine. Yes, yes, no European or American or even the ancient Chinese, namely Africa. It turns out that the seemingly savage tribes lived and those places are not only shamans and sorcerers, and a competent surgeons, anesthesiologists, and some useful knowledge that they possess, have not been put in modern medicine!
Africa has served as the development and surgery to a much greater extent than is generally believed in the civilized world. Century after century, by trial and error, the black magicians doctors did a sensational discovery. And it happened in a very, very long time ago, when European doctors have been nothing more than ignorant charlatans. Many medical secrets of Africa today are already known. How many of them, I often think, have remained unknown to white science?
Many years ago, traveling to the Belgian Congo, I made friends with a French doctor, a very lively and inquisitive person, never miss a chance to penetrate the mysteries of African medicine. As once docked on the river, he noticed a group of natives on the shore and invited me to look at one, it is, in my opinion, the incredible operation. The patient on the forearm was a deep cut. His comrades gathered large and scary ferocious black ants. Ants one placed on the wound. And then each ant in the flesh bruised his jaw and align the wound. In the end, the wound was sewn so carefully, as if it worked needle skilled surgeon. A infection, you ask? In Congo, will take care of the sun.
Among the healers witches are people who own not only the art of healing herbs, but also the skills of surgeons and hypnotists. Somewhere a little more than half a century ago, Sir Ronald Ross surprised the scientific world of his discovery — it appears that cause malaria mosquito bites. I think this discovery would have come much earlier, because since ancient times knew about it all savages who inhabit tropical Africa. "Do not build the huts where they live mosquitoes because mosquitoes — is evil, from which the blood is hot," — said the wise men of many tribes. If there had been in Africa, cinchona, the local witch doctors would have long ago discovered it. They have found the roots of aconite — a strong diaphoretic, relieves suffering malaria patient. They knew how to treat the so-called "black water" back in the days when most of the white die from the disease.
Up until recently, the white doctors treated a general paralysis, causing the patient an attack of malaria. Sir Ronald Ross figuratively wrote: "Microbes and germs paralysis malaria fight each other to the death, then the patient is cured of malaria multiple doses of quinine." African witch doctors could tell our scientists the same thing, only in other words, very long time — if only to someone thought to ask them about it. They sent their paralyzed the swamp, where they were bitten by mosquitoes.
Relapsing fever caused by the bite of the tick spirillum — another disease that won healers. In areas affected by this fever, the natives wherever went, always had with him his "personal" ticks, allowing them to roam freely throughout the body and thus providing natural circulatory system of antitoxin. In other words, they were infected themselves permanently in the weak, of course, much as in this disease the most unpleasant symptoms early, then the pain subsides. If they had allowed themselves to be cured completely, the new attack would be accompanied by great suffering.
Dr. T. X. Darrimpl held at the military medical service in Cameroon just before World War II, spoke very highly of the skills of the local healers. So, he met a witch doctor, who cured a patient with a mental disorder — a case which was considered by all European physicians hopeless. Local "doctor" — he wrote, loved to watch the operation, carried out by surgeons white, though they assured Dyulimpla that can achieve the same results without chloroform, with fewer tools and all this without any ostentation. "
In those same years, Dr. Cicely Williams, published in "The Lancet" article about the witch doctor, who had time to learn well over 9 years of work on the Gold Coast (modern Ghana). "Many methods of treatment are led by them are convincing and efficacious — she writes. — They certainly possess an effective way to cure tetanus. " The method of treatment of leprosy seed oil shormugry, open white scholars in the period between the two world wars, too long ago to successfully apply African healers.
For many centuries before the invention of modern serum black witch doctors have learned to save a person bitten by a snake. In this area, they are still far ahead white science as able to produce immunity in their patients. Take a look at your feet porter with the Gold Coast — these people are more likely to trample on snakes — and you will find on each foot between the big and second toes small incisions. They are applied every few years, and the person bitten by a snake survives. If you could persuade healers tropical Africa to give up their secrets, only descriptions of the methods of treatment of venomous snake bites could make a thick volume.
Long before Europe learned about the properties of radium, Congolese cured rheumatism black river mud. And there, in French Equatorial Africa (modern Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Chad) women used the same dirt for various purposes. For example, wore it in amulets, if not want to have children. Finally, scientists have condescended to make analyzes of the mud and found that it is radioactive. Radium not only facilitates rheumatic pain, but also cause infertility.
The late Senator William P. Stinkzmp, the figure in South Africa's legendary, carefully studied the remedies Hottentots and Bushmen. For many years he served as a priest, but it is so often called upon to help when needed urgent medical intervention, he later received a medical degree in the United States. I remember one of the stories Stinkempa. At the farm of his father when he was still a young boy, he worked colored shepherd named Bill Prince. This man was a famous physician in the whole district, and Stinkemp met with some of his medications. One of them was dried porcupine stomach wall, and Prince successfully used it in the treatment of stomach ulcers in humans. Years later, the official medicine has recognized method for the treatment of gastric ulcers extract from porcine gastric partitioning. But how could the color (or their ancestors) make this discovery? I believe only by trial and error.
Hottentots used fleece for the treatment of many skin diseases. Lanolin, a well-known art facility is recovered from the sebaceous secretions on the fur of sheep, this fat is easily absorbed by the skin.
If you suffer from high blood pressure, you should be aware of a drug called serpazil derived from an African plant Raur wolfia serpentina. Missionaries have long been reported that the natives used this plant to obtain excellent results. Only a decade later, the facility was recognized by official medicine.
Among the more unusual African media — treatment of malaria spider's web. For centuries, healers manufactured pills from the web of certain species. At the end of the last century, using the same web, Spanish pharmacologist Odiva received antipyretic called arahnidin, similar in its properties to quinine.
The natives of the Alur tribe, long since joined together in the upper reaches of the Nile, were treated madness, burying the patient up to the neck in a large anthill. Only recently has the white doctors began using formic acid as a tonic for the treatment of neurasthenia. Another traditional African remedy — treatment of chronic rheumatism sting of bees. In the Middle Ages it was known in Europe and in the XX century, the newly reborn as an old and experienced.
Even in ancient times, African healers have learned to get out of snail extract, which was treated with the nasal cavity. Only a few years ago, doctors began to use white extract glutamine from snails called mucin to treat colds and laryngitis.
Not all the herbal remedies could compete with such a wonderful invention as penicillin and sulfa drugs. However, a number have long been known in Africa have stood the test of plants, including chamomile. This bitter tonic can still be found in the modern pharmacy, along with the fur fly (barosmoy), open Hottentots, gum arabic, obtained from Acacia — another traditional African drug used as a sedative. In Mozambique, to this day, are greatly appreciated for their restorative properties of dried and ground root kalyumby (artarizy palm). Drugs were known in Africa long before they appeared in Europe, among them — the dark green wrinkled leaves and seeds of stramonium mandrake.
Milikilu, East African miracle drug, given to women in childbirth. It has an anesthetic effect. Some of the tribes of Tanganyika make themselves vaccinated on the forehead and shoulders of its own whey from the same virus. These same people also know how to prevent attacks of fever tick bite spirillum. Their herbal medicines for headaches, Captain William Hitchens discovered a few years ago, were so effective that they are now used by many whites.
Any African witch doctor has a whole arsenal of laxatives in his bag is always full set of grass with a diuretic and anesthetic action. Healers known male fern, expel tapeworms. Indigestion and flatulence is not a problem for them. Of vomiting and laxatives open Africans can make a long list. A full list of poisons still unfortunately known.
African witch doctors far more skilled pharmacists, rather than surgeons. However, this area of medicine is not limited to them only opening abscesses, boils, and blood-letting. Thus, among the Maasai living in Kenya, there are "primitive" surgeons who are able to extirpate the tumor eyes, amputated limbs, and remove the tonsils.
Many years ago, Dr. Felkin seen in Uganda as a completely "wild" native caesarean section, and with very successful results. I really did not understand why Felkin did the operation itself. Maybe he just was not in possession of tools.
The patient, a 20 year old woman gave birth to her first child when there is a need surgery. Her drugged potent local drink, banana wine. Before the operation the surgeon washed his hands with alcohol, and they also rubbed the woman's abdomen. He cut a notch at the same time the abdominal cavity, and the cavity of the uterus. The bleeding was stopped by cauterization with a hot iron. Doctor pulled the baby and massaging the uterus as long as it is not too short. Used for suturing wounds well sharpened iron nails wrapped around them with a strong thread. These nails have learned by the end of the first week, and already on the eleventh day of the wound completely tightened. The whole operation is Dr. Felkin described in detail in the "Edinburgh Medical Journal" (April 1884).
Back in the Neolithic period in Africa did craniotomy to relieve increased intracranial pressure in the case of cranial trauma. And the most interesting thing is that some patients have managed to survive in this. This is evidenced by the skull, keeping quite obvious signs of a surgery. Instead of sterile instruments, these surgeons have used stones or fragments of volcanic glass. Grass, fire and alcohol were antiseptics. Full of compassion, relatives and friends gathered around the operated, recitative singing and beating drums. The surgeon called to the aid of all his skill and courage, and certainly, if the patient is recovering, the case ended with a solemn ritual dance.
The dentist is nothing to fear, and he especially voodoo wisdom to anything. After all, in the end, what can a dentist without forceps? However, the "old regime" African witch doctors never practiced removal of teeth with metal tools, with which the civilized dentist. But they successfully removed a toothache. If the tooth is still subject to removal, the medicine man usually used various known only to the roots dried, ground into powder, gradually destroys the diseased tooth, after which he went to pieces — the procedure is pretty tedious. Zulu and probably many other doctors also knew a plant that was killing the nerve.
Zulus very deftly removed the spikes and thorns, were able to impose the tire well before their land has its first white man. Applied to broken limbs dog bone, in addition, the victim was given a variety of herbal preparations. In general, among the Zulus many wonderful healers. I think the first South African witch doctor, received recognition in other countries, was John Nembula, Zulu, who graduated from Medical College in Chicago in 1891. White doctor, who knew Nembulu, wrote that although he was not much intelligence, but at the expense of intuition and skill not inferior to their white counterparts.
Egypt — the birthplace of many civilized species and arts and crafts — was likely to witness the birth of medical science. Doctors who grew up on the banks of the Nile, by orders of magnitude superior to traditional healers, who inhabited the rest of the continent. Papyrus in 1568 BC, uh, kept a list of miracle cures. Books on medicine found in the tombs indicate that Egyptian doctors discharged patients ointments and patches, pills and suppositories. Honey and sagebrush, grass and juniper berries, figs, thyme and nasturtium were among their products. One of the ancient Egyptian funds derived from a species of sea onion (lily family), is still used as a diuretic and expectorant.
One after another, unraveling the mysteries of medical and tested the old Africa. It is difficult to judge how many more remain, but it would be short-sighted to exclude the possibility of new surprises. At the beginning of the century priest AT Bryant made a list of more than two hundred plants used in Zulu medicine. "You can not deny that sometimes native healer reaches success, sometimes astonishing, where all the efforts of European doctors have failed — he writes. — The means of its net numbers and some of them really help almost any illness — physical, moral, intellectual and social, Kojima is subject to man. "
Dr. Michael Dzhelfend, who worked in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), met a lot of doctors among the Mashona and spoke very highly of their intelligence and skill. Often secrets "Nganga" got a hold of his son and followed his father's footsteps. The medicine men think highly logical, stressed Dr. Dzhelfend. They are thin and gorgeous psychologists botany. They believe in their methods and want to help others, and their patients are incredibly attached to them.
On the other hand, Dr. Dzhelfendu failed to find a single local funds from those diseases that still can not be cured by means of the white medicine. He concludes: "Our hospitals crammed with TB, cancer, cirrhosis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic nephritis, pneumonia, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, leprosy, all of these diseases," Nganga "were treated to no avail."
It seems that the days are numbered and the white witch doctor science surpassed them in the art of healing. And apparently, only in one area of an African witch doctor still retains primacy. He was always considered a magician, and his patients as it believed that he often failed to cure them only the very force of this belief. What he did an outstanding practitioner!
White psychiatrists have every reason to be jealous of his skill. "The secret is not in the low exposure to the substance, drugs in the flesh, but those in the occult areas where the mind operates on the mind and the mind — in the flesh," — said Bryant.
African patients like to see and feel the results of treatment. And the witch doctor gives these results, working methods, being able to take its rightful place in any book or manual. He clearly diagnose the complaint, regardless of whether they are caused by enemies by throwing stones at the victim, or other stimuli. After the ceremony, the corresponding stones, or spikes, or even living lizards exposed. The relief experienced by the patient, can compare in this world only to that of contemplation torn aching tooth or his own appendix in a jar of alcohol.
When all is said and done, many patients — is both black and white — Wonder prefer science-based treatment. African witch doctor sticks to only those methods and capitalizes only those beliefs which have been widely distributed in Europe last century and are alive to this day. It is because of these beliefs healers so often achieve success.
Treatment of faith, wherever you are with him or come across, it is not a miracle. This is an extremely simple example of the power of the mind over the body, removing the subconscious stress, allowing the body to overcome the disease itself. The possibilities are limitless faith in the treatment of certain, of course, limits. And the African witch doctors know it's not worse than their counterparts in Europe and America.