First sample increase operational mobility artillery through the installation of various caliber guns on tracked or wheeled chassis has been made in the early XX century. In all this there was a certain inclination towards the latter, which was not the case.
Crawler tractors, tanks and then proved not only more difficult on a technical level, and significantly more expensive. Strategy implementation same combat tank units in 1920 — the 1930s have not been worked out. Role and place of self-propelled artillery clearly were not visible, and of the most self-propelled artillery as such was not. Because the developers have not beheld significant advantages crawler wheel before. Much less that the auto industry in that period developed quickly. New impetus to the creation of ACS on a wheeled chassis appearance gave inflated terrain vehicles. More successful design of this kind should be recognized French SPG chassis truck-rover Laffly, armed with 47mm anti-tank gun.
Starting the second World War put an end to competition between tracked and wheeled self-propelled guns. Nature of warfare definitely sought on the battlefield SAU made on tank chassis. Only in this way ensures close interaction with their tanks. Wheel ACS had neither sufficient for this terrain, no armor protection level required. Self-propelled guns also made chassis halftrack armored personnel carriers, can only be regarded as an auxiliary weapon system with disabilities. They acted in the main combat formations of infantry units equipped with armored personnel carriers halftrack. By the end of the war the concept samohodnoartilleriyskoy installation on tank chassis completely defeated. But, as soon became clear, not forever.
In the first post-war decades of arsenals leading military powers in the world have gone a tank destroyer. Fight with enemy tanks absolutely laid on tanks and antitank missile systems. The latter can be mounted on anything — from helicopters to jeeps. The need to support the tanks in the battle no longer self-propelled guns, and eventually fell to the level of requirements and the latest body armor. By the early 1970s in various countries began to arrive on arms lightly armored self-propelled chassis made or tracked armored personnel carriers, or on special chassis. And it was only self-propelled howitzers from 105 to 203 mm. With decreasing mass combat these SAU reappeared temptation of using a wheeled chassis, especially because at that time there were already many examples of auto technology, patency is not inferior to tracked vehicles. As a pioneer in the development of the latest generation of wheel ACS became Czechoslovakia.
It must be emphasized that the army of the Warsaw contract in the main were equipped with weapons and military equipment of Russian manufacture. Together those countries with the respective defense industry, it was not forbidden to develop their own standards for their own needs, and for other allied countries. The only requirement was only unification ammunition.
Middle of the 1970s, the design bureau of machine building company in the Slovak town of Dubnica nad Vahom developed innovative artillery systems, adopted by the Czechoslovak army weapons under the designation 152 mm ShKH vz.77 (152 mm samohydna kanonova houfnice vz. 77 — 52MM 1 self-propelled gun-howitzer reference 1977). But this self-propelled tremendous fame, launched the series in 1979, acquired under the name of his — «Dana».
As a base for placement of weapons in this all-wheel drive chassis ACS applied Tatra 815, seriously upgraded for this purpose. The chassis has a wheel formula 8×8, with 2 pairs of front driven wheels. Suspension — spring is independent. Wheels equipped control system for tire pressure. In front of the chassis is a low-profile armored cabin. It posted jobs driver and commander. In the rear of the chassis is placed 12tsilindrovy V-shaped multi-fuel diesel Tatra 293034 power 345 hp
Armament — 152mm gun-howitzer — set in a rotating turret consisting of 2-armored polubashen, sealed and isolated from each other. On the left are jobs gunner and loader, located in tandem, behind them — mechanized laying of charges. On the right — the workplace second charging, and before him — mechanized laying shells. Landing on the turret hatch second loader installed 12.7 mm anti-aircraft gun DShKM. Flitches gun-howitzer mounted between polubashnyami openly. Over the gun barrel placed chambering mechanism.
A similar installation gun-howitzers excludes the impact on the calculation of powder gases when administered saturated shooting. Specifically provided is a shooting in automatic mode, when the shells and charges by means of special devices on the line served chambering. Spent cartridges are removed special transporter. In automatic mode, «Dana» is capable of producing 30 shots in 7 minutes and an hour — 90 shots. When the loading rate of the manual is 2 rds. / Min. Ammunition Ammo — 60 shots. Used for shooting high-explosive grenades from Russian pushkig-D20 howitzers, including in Czechoslovakia. The highest elevation of the gun barrel is +70 °, Dec. 4 °. Despite the fact that the setting in the firing position posted by three hydraulic supports, you can only keep the fire in the sector 225 °. Most firing range grenade oskolochnofugasnoy mass 43.5 kg is 18.7 km. Installation can be deployed in the firing position for 2 minutes and leave it — after a minute after the shooting.
The engine allows the car to combat weight 29.25 t reach speeds of 80km / h Supplies range — 800 km.
Please 1980s ACS «Dana» entered service in Czechoslovakia, Poland and East Germany. Czechoslovak military government has proposed «Dan» and the Russian Union, but it caused no particular interest. From the standpoint of fire abilities «Dana» was similar (except the rate of) Russian self-propelled howitzer 2SZ «Acacia», which was already in service with the Russian Army. However, due to the use of the wheel chassis «Dana» had a more superior mobility on the roads, but the roads she lost patency track «Acacia». This event may not have a significant value in the criteria of extensive European road network, but parts of the USSR was an obvious disadvantage. Very serious shortcoming «given» numbers and the lack of ability of loading from the ground.
In general, it was obvious that to accept service another artillery system that had no trivial advantages over Russian does not make sense. Such an outlook eventually established itself mainly Missile and Artillery Directorate and 3m CRI USSR Ministry of Defense — Organizations which have been entrusted to the need to study the issue of procurement «Dana.» Yet in 1979 Rzhevsky artillery range experienced two standard «Dana», which, as expected, showed no advantage over the Russian equivalent. In 1983, the General Staff was directed letter from Grau USSR Ministry of Defense inexpedient supply Russian Alliance ACS «Dana.» But in the same year, the command still decided to take a certain amount of self-propelled guns in Czechoslovakia experienced troop operation in the USSR. To do this in Czechoslovakia bought 6 (according to other sources, 18 — Division One) self-propelled guns. They operated in the USSR about a year, were then returned to Czechoslovakia. In 1985, the Soviet Defence Minister SL Sokolov was oriented report on the results of trial operation «given.» Despite the objections and doubts most of our artillery, the Council of Ministers of the USSR issued October 25, 1986 decree «On procurement in Czechoslovakia in 1987 — 1989 152mm self-propelled gun-howitzers» Dana «. Maybe this order Russian management wishes to support the Union producer.
Czechoslovak ACS planned 211yu artbrigady arm, part of the Central Group of Forces stationed in Czechoslovakia. Those facilitated by addressing logistics. In 1988, the «given» to the troops began to arrive. Until the moment of re 211ya team consisted of four divisions, equipped with towed guns, howitzers and self-propelled 2S5 D20 «Hyacinth». Since the beginning of the real part of the substitution compound defected to the new state: Now it consisted of 5 divisions, each of which had three artillery batteries vosmiorudiynogo composition. So Makar, the total number of ACS «Dana» in the brigade was 120 units. Not counting the artillery brigade TSGV these settings received in artillery training center, located on the terrain of the Belarusian Military Area.
Review officers serving in the 211y brigade artillery unit «Dana» was very sensitive to the operating conditions, and for this reason there was a lot of failures. Particular praise was honored with an eight chassis, in any case, its maneuverability, which was even higher than that BTR70. Turning radius ACS was such that in the narrow field — where, for example, required to drive armored personnel carrier in two steps, with the inclusion of a reverse gear — «Dana» passed without problems.
In the Russian Army «given» a long period. In 1990, the early withdrawal of formations and units with TSGV areas of Czechoslovakia. 211ya brigade was incorporated into the military forces of the Metropolitan Area and relocated to the village Moulineaux Gorky region. Materiel same brigade was sent to Kazakhstan, but data on the operation of ACS «Dana» in Kazakhstan.
It is worth noting that in the USSR around this time took samples make your own self-propelled gun on a wheeled chassis. As the base used 8×8 chassis 15 tons an experienced car KrAZ4R3130 standard flex-fuel diesel YAMZ202 360 hp But these works further creation of prototypes did not.
What still concerns Czechoslovakia, until the early 1990s made about 750 self-propelled guns. And an attempt was made upgrading ACS due to the growth of the gun barrel length from 39 to 47 calibers. This option has received the title of «Ondava», but data on its serial production is not.
Please 1990s Slovak designers, trying to expand the market for its own machines, developed another modernized version. ACS «Zuzana» differs from «Dana» priemuschestvenno instrument. It is armed with 155mm gun-howitzer with a barrel length of 45 calibres. Accuracy may be used for all standard NATO ammunition. Ammunition was reduced to 40 rounds, and the crew — up to 4 people. Improved fire control system. Anti-aircraft gun DShKM changed modern NSV12 7. On the frontal turret mounted units smoke grenade. On some demo swatches and mounted IR Illuminator «Luna-4», which states the existence of a car the night sight for direct fire.
After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992, the park was divided between SPG Czech and Slovak armies. Namely, on 1 January 2008 in the Czech Republic there were 173 cars (115 of them — in storage), Slovakia — 131 (12 — in storage). In turn, Poland has 111 artillery systems «Dana».
ACS «Dana» Georgia
That still regards deliveries to other countries, it is clear to them strongly enough. Fairly clear that the Czech Republic in 2006 sold 12 ACS «Dana» in Georgia. Two years in a row, these plants have been a kind of «highlight» of the military parade in Tbilisi. Judging by the television footage of the night of 7 to 8 August 2008, they fired sleeping Tskhinvali together with «Grad», incidentally, also made in Czechoslovakia — RM70.
G6 Rhino («Rhino»)
Another standard self-propelled guns on a wheeled chassis was created almost at the same time as the «Dana», but far from Czechoslovakia — in South Africa. ACS Development, received the designation G6 Rhino («Rhino»), began in the late 1970s in the state of APMSKOR, and experienced first reference appeared in 1981. Selecting a wheeled undercarriage was justified first surface relief in the region also need to have a large self-propelled progress in store military equipment used ground troops.
In the front part of the body SAU G6 is the separation of management behind him — power pack, and then fighting, including armored turret radial rotation. The casing is made of welded armor plates that protect against fire guns and small fragments of artillery shells. Reinforced bottom has reservations against acts min.
G6 used on diesel engine air cooling capacity of 525 hp
Automatic transmission provides 6 assists and two front running — back. All-wheel — drive (wheel formula 6×6), front pair — controlled. Wheel suspension — is independent torsion bar with hydraulic shock absorbers, while firing it off. Before that, with the help of the hydraulic system are lowered four feet (on the sides in the front and rear parts of the body). Despite the significant combat weight 36.5 t, G6 self-propelled howitzer has good mobility. Most highway speed — 90 km / h, and on rough terrain 35 — 40 km / h Supplies running 600 kilometers.
In the armored turret located: commander, gunner and two charging. For their entrance and exit are on the right side of the door and two turret hatch on the roof. In front of the tower on both sides of the gun are Quadruple smoke grenade launchers. Commander’s cupola periscopes armed radial angle. Before charging flap mounted 12.7 mm machine gun to shoot both ground and air targets.
The main armament ACS — 155mm howitzer with a barrel length of 45 calibres. Gun angles pointing vertically from 5 to +75 °, and the horizontal 80 °. Drives guidance — electro. To facilitate the loading gate on the left side placed dosylatel shells. Combustible propellant charges in the liner placed in the bolt by hand. Excellent trained payment rate provides 4 rds. / Min for 15 min.
For firing the howitzers used with oskolochnofugasnymi shots, smoke, illuminating and incendiary shells. Ammunition Ammo — 47 rounds and 52 charges. Most ordinary oskolochnofugasnym firing range projectile is 30 km away and oskolochnofugasnym with special pyrotechnic bottom nozzle — 39 km.
The fire control system (FCS), not counting the day and night sights, includes a laser rangefinder and ballistic computer electric. It can be connected to the battery MSAs give out the right target designation.
ACS began mass production in 1988. Previously, several cars had been tested during the fighting yuarovskih troops in Angola. In the late 1990s, the party acquired G6 Army United Arab Emirates.
Creating 2-quite successful ACS samples on a wheeled chassis pushed designers in other countries for the design of such systems. With all this revealed a general trend — the rejection of the use of heavy multi-axle chassis and armor protection.
Practically it is a substitution of the ordinary gun gun carriage wheel, coupled with the progress and the platens on 2-or three-axle truck inflated terrain. Creators bribes highest mobility systems such as the willingness to Hassle-opening fire.
withIstemi ATMOS (Autonomous TruckMounted System)
One of the conventional models of new ACS system is ATMOS (Autonomous TruckMounted System), made by the Israeli company Soltam chassis Czechoslovak truck Tatra 815 (Option 6×6). In the rear of the chassis mounted swivel and the top part of the machine 155mm howitzer with a barrel length of 52 calibers. This ACS was created in 2001 actually commissioned the Indian Army, which manifests to such systems overvalued enthusiasm.
In the Netherlands, the system is tested Mowat — 105mm howitzer mounted on a two-axle truck loading platform. And in France eight artbatarei ground forces rearmed self-propelled guns of Caesar GIAT Industries. 155mm howitzer mounted aft of all-wheel drive truck chassis Renault 6×6. Armed with light armored car unit, fire control devices, also drawers to accommodate shells and charges. In general, on the machine they were not transported. ACS Caesar can be transported C130 aircraft. Is driven into a state of readiness to open fire for 2 minutes. It must be emphasized that the enthusiasm for the development of such systems exhibit the United States and other NATO countries.