Armored personnel carrier (APC) is a tracked armored combat or wheeled machine, which is designed in the main to transport personnel department mechanized infantry to the battlefield, providing it with all this fire support. An APC is nominally installed or built-caliber weapons up to 20 mm.
Armored vehicles and armored personnel carriers except all the rest are used to protect troops during the march, reconnaissance and patrol. For actions in black the clock in the APC installed night vision devices. Equipped special arrangements, this technique is used for towing mortars and guns, the transportation of cargo and ammunition, evacuation of the wounded. On the basis of the APCs and armored cars can be created self-propelled mortars and guns, combat support vehicles for anti-tank, anti-aircraft guns, etc.
BTR Park, U.S. Army, which consists of more than 18 thousand pieces of equipment, including such major armored personnel carriers, as tracked M113 (about 13,000 units) and AAV7A1 (in the Marine Corps is more than 2,500 cars), and APC on wheels "Stryker" (wheel formula 8×8) ( more than 2,000 cars).
The basic M113 was developed in the 57-59 years of the last century and into mass creation was launched in January 60th. In general, including those machines that have been built on the basis of M113, made about 85 thousand units. For a long time it remained the main armored vehicle of the U.S. Army, in substantial quantities supplied to other countries. He participated in almost all armed conflicts.
At the moment, is in service with a number of countries, including the United States, but gradually supplanted by newer machines. Of the 13 thousand M113, which are in service in the U.S. Army, much of the modernization was to modify A3.
Power plant BTR — diesel engine 6V-53T RISE (275 hp) turbocharged of "Detroit Diesel Corporation" and four-speed hydromechanical transmission X-200-4 of "Allison".
The main difference from previous versions is to increase the survivability of vehicles on the battlefield due to additional armor protection, improved fire suppression system and protection against weapons of mass destruction. Welded sealed housing made of duralumin armor width 12-14 mm. To dismount troops in the stern ramp is hinged in the middle of which there is an emergency exit door. The commander is seated in the rear of the case and can produce radial visibility to the commander of the tower. It can carry fire from the 12.7-mm machine guns both ground and air targets. The driver is located in the forward part of the left side. Driving NIGHT MODE provides a night vision device driver Ml9. BTR floating, moving through the water is due to the rotation of caterpillars, which are made in hydrodynamic housings. To improve the properties of the navigable installed on M113 volnootrazhayuschy shield.
Created based on the BTR family of vehicles: 120-mm self-propelled mortar M106 installation and 81-mm M125, command post vehicle (CSV) M577 (anti-aircraft self-propelled gun "Volcano" M741, M548 unarmoured tracked carrier, missile launcher M667, M901 self-propelled anti-tank systems and machine with equipment for smoke-screens MP01 A3 (LAMPSS), able to put the veil on the distance of 6 km, and the rest.
In connection with the reorganization of the U.S. Army for mechanized brigades created BTR "Stryker" on the basis of armored combat vehicle LAV-III (8 x 8).
The crew 11 people (nine of them — landing, a driver and commander). Armament — 7.62 or 12.7 mm machine gun or a 40mm automatic grenade launcher (BTR "Stryker», M1 126). Likely also options machines with 105-mm gun (M1 128) or 120-mm mortar setting (M1 129).
Standard APC equip hydropneumatic suspension, central tire inflation system, a filtering unit (HLF), the receiver KRNS NAVSTAR, night vision devices, guidance systems and stabilize the fire. APC offers a passive armor, but the possibility of installing active protection system, which is under the United States.
Based on the BTR "Stryker" made by: Combat Reconnaissance Vehicle (BRM) (M1 127), CSV (M1 130), radiochemical and biological machine intelligence (M1 135), ambulance (M1 133), self-propelled anti-tank systems (M1 134), combat fire support vehicle (M1 131), Engineering (M1 132) and a number of others.
In service with the Army of Germany as of 2010 there were more than 2,600 armored personnel carriers, of which 348 wheeled APCs TPz-1 "Fuchs" (6 x 6), 1500 — tracked M113 South American production and about 150 articulated tracked armored Bv-206s production Sweden. Scheduled for delivery to the troops 272 new armored "Boxer" in various modifications. There are also 400 armored vehicles "Dingo" (4 x 4). In 1977, "Henschel vertehnik" signed a contract to build 996 cars TPz-1 "Fuchs", delivery of which is in East Germany was completed in 1986. A small number of these APCs were oriented as in the Netherlands. At the current time BTR TPz-1 "Fuchs" discontinued. It is also in service with the U.S. Army, England, Israel and Venezuela.
Welded housing Armored personnel carriers, made of steel, protects the crew from small arms fire guns and shell fragments. The cross section of the body has a diamond shape.
The power unit is represented by an eight-diesel engine "Mercedes Benz" OM402A a turbocharged 302 hp. s. and a six-speed gearbox.
APC is made floating, walking on water by using 2-propellers mounted at the rear of the chassis. To control the machine afloat screws are equipped with 360 degree rotation. Rated capacity (without loss of navigable properties) of 4000 kg. On board there are places for 3 bilge pumps with total capacity of 180 l. / Min.
Place the driver placed in the forward part of the left and the commander — the right of it. The driver's cab is equipped with 4 periscopic monitoring devices installed on the roof in front of his hatch. The troop compartment is at the rear of the chassis, and between branches of management and landing — Power Unit (SU). Between these offices have a small passage to the right.
pers, consisting of 10 people, is located on the individual seats (5 seats on each side). Dismounting through two rear doors. APC equip a single HLF, which provides ventilation units assault and management.
By car, depending on the task, can be mounted 7.62-mm machine gun MG 3 (before the hatches commander) or 20-mm automatic cannon of "Rheinmetall" on a rotating turret. In addition, the APC is equipped with six smoke grenade launchers to be placed on the left side.
BM options based on the BTR "Fuchs» TPz-1: CSV, engineering machine, radiological, chemical and biological (NBC) reconnaissance, electronic warfare vehicle, armored reconnaissance vehicles, fire support vehicle.
Multi-purpose armored vehicle "Dingo" Company "Krauss-Maffei Wegmann" developed on the basis of commercial freight car "Mercedes Benz".
The car (4×4) armored body has to protect the crew from bullets (caliber 9 mm) of small tools, shell fragments, also from certain types of anti-tank and anti-personnel mines.
Standard equipment includes three systems: central tire inflation system, air conditioning, anti-lock braking, traction and exchange rate stability, and heat dissipation screens and TPU. On the roof of the car can be set (for the crew and landing) 7.62 — or 12.7-mm machine gun or a 40mm grenade launcher. Foreseen as equipping armored NBC-protection systems and equipment automatic control system tactical NE Germany (for mobile Fri, control and communications).
Armored Car "Dingo" serves as the basis for the creation of the command and staff, military intelligence and care of machines, can also be used as a transport vehicle for the transport of ammunition or supplies material means.
In the first step (including 2000) work on BTR "Boxer" (8 x in the Federal Republic of Germany were held together with Britain and France in the framework of programs from GTK / MRAV / VBCI, but then both of these countries have abandoned the role in this project because of the highest price. Development of the machine was completed in 2009, together with the Netherlands.
A distinctive feature of the APC is a modular implementation of the main components (body and chassis). This approach provides for a release of all types of machines of the family of unified chassis (core module) and the corresponding range of multifunctional modules that define the purpose of the machine in one way or another configuration.
The base module is a stand-alone armor design on a wheeled chassis (8 x 8), and multi-functional modules are produced in the form of quick-armor designs. Any of them with similar dimensions and the seats has a dedicated internal assembly and a set of special equipment regardless of the combat mission. As required, the module for kutsee time can be replaced by another (or the same for other use). This principle allows us to reduce the costs of forming the required fleet of armored combat vehicles and greatly simplify the system of logistics units.
Another feature of the APC "Boxer" is the realization of the concept of modular reservation when on the carrier's hull mounted machine set quick-armor plates that can rapidly change the warped blocks and achieve the required level of protection regardless of the standard test conditions and goals.
Park armored NE France, as of 2010, had more than 3,700 APC VAB (4 x 4) and 12 Swedish tracked armored Bv-206s.
VAB armored personnel carrier was designed by "Reno" and GIAT commissioned SW France immediately in 2-versions: four-and six-wheel. In this case both machines have a single assembly, but differ in size.
Common are also SU, control mechanisms, differentials, brake system, other components and systems. Extensively used in the manufacture of components and units of commercial vehicles. For the purposes of France was released about 4000 VAB 4×4, 6×6 whereas modification is the export version. In total, there are about 5000 BTP VAB.
VAB armored housing is welded and consists of a solid sheet steel, which provides protection against small arms and light weapons fire and shell splinters. Placed in front of the Department of Management, on the left — the place of the driver, to the right — the commander.
This machine is equipped with a basic set 7.62 — or 12.7-mm machine gun, while on the options to be exported can be established more armament, Depending on customer requirements, including rocket and cannon.
Specifically, the separation of control placed power pack department. Left mounted six-cylinder inline diesel engine liquid cooling "Renault» MIDS 06.20.45 220hp with hydraulic gearbox, providing 5-speed gears and one front — back. At the same variant for export may be the presence of more massive engine. Clutch operation and gear shifting electro. On each axis, there is the main transmission and differential lock. Box and the box placed in front of the engine. Include a separate power pack compartment fire extinguishing system.
In the back of the case is the troop compartment. It can accommodate 6 fully-equipped infantrymen. Landing and dismount landings are carried out through two stern doors. The machine can be equipped with HLF, the heating system and the system of protection against weapons of mass destruction, additional armor, night vision devices and a central tire inflation system.
-Independent suspension with hydraulic shock absorbers. At APC with the wheel formula 6×6 guided the first two pairs of wheels, and 4×4 — only the front. All-wheel drive, but when driving on the highway the front (the machines 6×6 two front pairs) can be switched off.
These machines are floating. Movement afloat by using 2-controlled water cannon, mounted on each side of the back of the case. To remove trapped inside zabronevogo place of water, there are two electric pumps.
On the basis of the number of armored vehicles BTR created for different purposes: Powertrain, armored recovery vehicles and sanitary, self-propelled anti-tank systems, self-propelled 81-mm and 120-mm towed mortars, anti-aircraft self-propelled gun (ZSU) with twin 20-mm cannon.
BTR Park Army of Italy as of 2010 totaled 5,800 pieces of equipment, from their 3000 — BTR M113AZ South American production, 1760 — VCC-1/2, 304 — "Fiat 6614", 91 — Bv-206s, 50 — AAVP7A1 and about 600 armored personnel carriers "Puma".
Italian consortium "Iveco" has developed a light armored "Puma" with wheel formulas (4×4) and (6×6) with a capacity of four (1 +3) and seven (1 +6) people and combat weight of 7 and 8.4 m, respectively. Park NE It
aly has about 600 of these cars, 450 of which are 6×6 and 150 — 4×4.
The main armament — 12.7-mm machine gun. The power plant is a BTR 4-cylinder diesel engine "Iveco" (Type 8042) 180 hp and automatic transmission. Machine has a huge number of standardized components such as the engine, transmission and suspension, similar to the existing specimen of the state of development of car technology.
Based on the BTR "Puma" made different technology options: CSV, armored reconnaissance vehicles, machines equipped with anti-tank and antiaircraft complexes, with a 81-mm mortar plants, sanitary armored vehicles and CBR protection.
In 1970 in Italy took the South American tests upgraded M113A1 armored personnel carriers with heavy armor protection and armament, then by "OTO Melara" was purchased a license for the establishment of this machine. With all of this Italian spices made on the basis of its own armored variant, designated VCC-1. Its creation was completed in 2000, but this machine at the present time is in service NE Italy and Saudi Arabia.
Housing APC VCC-1 weld is made of duralumin alloy reinforced in the front and on the sides of the 6-mm iron plates. Chassis protivokumulyativnymi rubber-covered screens. On the sloping sides are placed on two loopholes with sight glass blocks for firing a personal weapon and one is in the rear doors. Seating and hatches in the roof are located in the same way as that of the APC N4113.
The main armament — 12.7-mm machine gun M2 HB openly mounted on the turret hatches before the arrow to the right of it is the subsidiary of 7.62 mm. There is a version of the open-topped armored turret with the same gun and placed it on the sides of the smoke grenade launchers.
Quadruple developed 25-mm gun mount STDAM, as machines with 20 -, 25 -, 60 — or 90-mm weapons.
At VCC-1 installed diesel engine capacity of 215 hp and hydro-box "Allison TX-100", for all that the highest rate APCs on the highway is 64.5 km / h Chassis has 5 rollers on board with front-wheel drive, torsion bar suspension with hydraulic shock absorbers, tracks with rubber mount fitted with rubber pads.
The crew and landing machine is nine people (3 +6). The driver is placed in the front of the unit to the left, above it — a flap that opens to the right. On the side of the machine has four periscope observation devices M-17 and one M-19, which allow radial survey area. Periscope M-19 can be replaced by a passive night vision device for driving NIGHT MODE. The commander placed specifically for a seat of the driver. The place is located to the right of the gunner commander, with all this workplace each equipped with five of their periscopes.
The troop compartment is located in the rear of the machine. For planting and dismount landing behind a flip-ramp. BTR floating, moving afloat at the expense of winding tracks.
By "Aris spas" first-2000s was released a set of outboard equipment to improve the properties of the amphibious M113 (USA). Weight of 1 350-1 700 kg, including fore and aft. These parts are also welded and made of duralumin alloys, as does the M113.
The first model of the machine, named "Arisgator", was produced in 1997, and since 1999, the APC was produced in small quantities, in the main for the needs of the Marine Corps.
The protruding nose and two aft (on each side) of the created to improve buoyancy. In addition, an APC has two helical propeller-driven, which can be rotated around its own axis.
The machine has changed the cooling system — air intake and exhaust pipes mounted on the roof on the right side of the axis of the APC. Otherwise, it is similar to the South American M11Z.
The park armored NE Spain as of 2010, there were 2,400 units, including 1,700 APCs M113AZ, 686 armored personnel carriers BMR-600 (6×6) and 38AAVP7A1.
Spanish NE are two models of armored vehicles of national production: the main of which — BMR-600. Machine 6×6 has a chassis with 2 front steering axle, the body is made of duralumin alloys.
APC installed on a floating six-cylinder engine "Pegasus" 9157/8 March 10 liter capacity. s. Crew / Troopers 3 9 people. The combat weight of 14 ton machine
At its base may be the creation of the next options: CSV, sanitary armored personnel carriers, machine technical assistance. In addition, at the BMR-600 can be mounted anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapons.
In the army of Israel in the 201M, there were 6,500 tracked APCs: 6000 M113A3 and 500 "Ahzarit."
The heavy armored "Ahzarit" is unique because it is designed based on the tank T-54/T-55 Russian production. The decision to make an APC chassis MBT was taken on the basis of the following statements:
— as practice shows, light armored vehicles category (by weight) are more vulnerable to the mountainous and forested and urban criteria;
— the large number of captured tanks T-54/55 captured during the Arab-Israeli conflict.
On this basis, also from an economic judgment was decided to develop an APC "Ahzarit." First experienced the standards were developed by the Israeli IDF («Israel Defense forses" in 1987, and in 1988 started its mass creation).
The box and the new power unit changed: hydro-box production of "Allison" and the eight-cylinder diesel engine of the company "General Motors." Due to a more optimal location of the latest SU was increased frontal protection APC. The advantage of the machine is also a small silhouette. Dismount landing is back on the right side of the hull. Landing door compartment is hinged to land a narrow ramp and soar with hydraulic lid over the case with the walls.
Each member of the crew (commander, driver and gunner) has its own hatc
h. The cover flap is the commander of the roof structure and can be raised by half, to provide the best visual overview of terrain. Rear 3-frontal hatches placed two more — one in the center of the troop compartment, the second — to the left and rear of it. Place the driver is equipped with 4 observation devices, the other 6 — installed on the roof of the crew compartment: two — on the left side and four — on the right. So Makar, landing has an opportunity to review the radial area closed hatches.
The gunner is firing from the main weapons — machine gun OWS office "Raphael", the loaded 7.62-mm M240 (remotely or directly from the hatch).
As an added weapon used three 7.62-mm machine guns — one on the commander's turret hatch and two — on the rear hatches.
APC has a small silhouette and the highest level of armor protection body, which increases the survivability of the machine, and the presence of HLF allows you to fight in the contaminated areas of the countryside.
The main efforts in modernizing the armament and the development of promising BTR focused on increasing their combat and operational and technical characteristics (firepower, protection and mobility). In the future, these war machines will be used to transport infantry and cargo on the battlefield, and, if necessary, will be borne by them as tasks inherent in the BMP.
Another priority is to improve the BTR Park development so called modular machines of the German-Dutch armored "Boxer", which will allow to reduce costs and simplify their repair and maintenance.