The beginning of the Troubles. Military action against the rebels and impostors. Part 2

During the rebellion of May 17, the citizens not only dealt with the impostor, and many Poles, who were either False Dmitry came to the suite of Marina Mnishek. Boyars barely managed to halt the rampant crowd, which could be directed against them. Alarmed by the actions of the urban population nobles hastened to elect a new king, without waiting for the convocation of the Zemsky Sobor, which could be presented to delegates from all over the Russian land. May 19, 1606 before the assembled people on Red Square "called out" the name of the head organizer of what happened in Moscow coup — nobles Vasily Shumsky. June 1, the last of the Rurik on the Russian throne (Basil was of a noble family Shuiskis, Suzdal branch of Rurik) was crowned Novgorod Metropolitan Isidore.

The uprising Bolotnikova

Four years of his reign was a time of turmoil and hardest test for the Russian people. Troubles in the state to suspend the new ruler could not. Shuya tried to rely on the nobility and the urban population of the north and center of the Russian country. He increment period of investigation runaway farmers under 15 years of age. But a similar policy further escalate the situation in the country. In the southern part of the country, even the landowners were opposed to limiting the output of the peasant and continued to harbor fugitives who settled on their lands. On the South has become a springboard for a massive anti-government movement.

During the May 1606 uprising in the capital Putyvl, and then fled to Poland is one of the closest associates of imposter — Mikhail A. Molchanov. He took with him one of the municipal seal. After the accession of Basil Shuya by many Russian towns were sent letters, sealed stolen seal. They argued that the real ruler again miraculously been rescued and will soon return to punish the traitors. These messages look totally authentic. One of these letters was returning from Turkish captivity Don Cossack Ivan Isaevich Bolotnicov (last combat slave of Prince Telyatevsky). In Sambor, Mníšek, he was introduced to "the king Dmitry Ivanovich" and he granted the rank of Bolotnikov "great governor" and sent to Prince Grigory Shakhovskoy, who at that time raised Seversk land against the government Basil Shuya.

Bolotnicov and another impostor — Lzhepetr (runaway slave Ileyka Korovin, who called himself the "prince of Peter Fedorovich," fabulous offspring Fedor) became the head of the 1st of the most massive in the Russian history of popular uprisings, not in vain, it is also called "peasant war . " In a move was not only the role of slaves and farmers, and many experienced in military service people, which led P. Lyapunov, I. Pasha and other leaders of the nobility. The rebels won a victory Kromy, Yelets, were broken in a collision at the mouth of the Ugra river, then took revenge in the battle on the river Lopasnya and went to the river Pakhra. On Pakhra squad was defeated by the forces of Pashkov M. Skopina-Shumsky. PASHKOV retreated to Kolomna, which has teamed up with the Ryazan troops. The rebels were able to take possession of Kolomna (not counting the Kremlin) and started new coming to Moscow. SHUISKI sent an army against them under the Mstsislauye F. and D. Shumsky. October 25, 1606 near the village of Trinity, 50 miles from the capital, came a huge fight that ended with a heavy defeat of the forces of capital. Several thousand captured ordinary warriors PASHKOV released and authoritative prisoners sent to Putyvl. Rebel army approached Moscow and established a camp in the village of Kolomenskoye, here soon arrived and Bolotnicov.

The siege of the capital lasted more than a month — until December 2. This was the period of highest pitch of rebellion, which took possession of a gigantic area. The rebels controlled more than 70 cities in the south and center of the Russian country. Metropolitan government in this critical moment to show maximum commitment and organization, while in the rebel camp went discord. Many began to express doubts about the existence of Dmitry and to the side of Shumsky. Camp Bolotnikova split into nobles, knights kids (they were headed Istoma PASHKOV and brothers Lyapunovs) and Cossacks, serfs and farmers (supporters Bolotnikova). SHUISKI able to rely on the metropolitan urban population, who are confident in the inevitability of merciless revenge for the murder of False Dmitry. The townspeople were hard and were willing to stand up to the end, "thieves 'lists' (leaflets distributed by the rebels) could not shake their resolve. Supported Shumsky and clergy, headed by the patriarch Hermogen. In addition, the government was able to acquire Shumsky and redeploy troops to the capital city of Smolensk, Dorogobuzh, white and Viaz'ma and other cities. November 15, 1606 Shumsky defected to the side of the nobility and troops Lyapunov Sumbulova.

November 30 began a decisive battle for Moscow. Stubborn battle lasted three day or intermittently. Bolotnicov decided to force the action, do not wait until it melts and the army went on the attack. Bolotnikovtsy tried to capture the Simonov monastery, but were repulsed with the loss bolshennymi. After that, the troops fled Shumsky the offensive. Bolotnicov was obliged to withdraw from prison in Kolomna, entrenched in the village fence. But he fell, this reference point, the Cossacks led by Ataman Bezzubtsev defected to the side of the government troops. Bolotnicov suffered a complete defeat and fled to Kaluga. Decisive role in the victory of the two factors played Shumsky. In 1-x, leadership talent Misha Vasilyevich Skopina-Shumsky. In-2, siding with the government forces squad Pashkov.

Bolotnicov assembled in Kaluga to 10 thousand people and in May broke the royal troops under the city. Then he started the second march on Moscow. June 5, 1607 at the river eighth fierce battle took place and bolotnikovtsy were driven to Tula. During June-October 1607 Bolotnicov kept the defense in Tula. Groups Bolotnikova and Lzhepetra stubbornly defended and only the implementation of a bold plan offspring boyars Ivan Krovkova, which proposed dam the river Upa and flood the city, assist to break the resistance of the rebels. October 10, 1607 rebels surrendered. Bolotnikova exiled to Cargopol where blinded and drowned. "Prince Peter" after several months of interrogation was hanged.

New impostor

Despite the defeat of the uprising Bolotnikova Time of Troubles in the Russian state has not ended. Survivors bolotnikovtsy joined the running of the rebel army Starodub False Dmitry II and became part of the Tushino camp.

New impostor appeared in the spring of 1607 in the town of Starodub. His army was not only the Cossacks and bolotnikovtsy, and the Poles, Lithuanians — Member of the suppression by the authorities of the Commonwealth of rebellion against Sigismund III. First, in September the army on campaign impostor. He commanded his army of Polish Maciej Mehovetsky colonel who led Falsdmitry detachment of 700 cavalry. The troops occupied the impostor Pochel, Bryansk, then headed for the Karachevo, where together with the Cossacks. October 8 False Dmitry II troops stormed the government forces who besieged Kozel'sk. Capital Governor Vasily Litwin-Mosalsky was caught by surprise and retreated. This victory inspired the enemies Basil Shuya and on the side of the impostor fled the town Dedilov, Epiphany Krapivna and Belyov. After which the troops began to move to the impostor Tula. Their numbers have gained 8 million people (5 million Poles and Lithuanians, 3 thousand Russian). After learning about the fall of Tula, Lzhedmitry finished coming — his squad could not hold serious operation and confront a large army Shumsky. Then he retreated to the impostor Kar
achevo and began to retreat to the Seversky towns.

After receiving reinforcements — the Pretender joined the Polish-Lithuanian troops Valavsk and Tyshkevicha, the rebels moved to Bryansk. 9 November the siege of the town. Came to the rescue of the town of Meshchovsk government troops and Moscow. November 15 government troops crossed the Desna and immediately stormed the enemy. Broken troops impostor governor Shuya could not, but was taken to the city of food and ammunition. Dmitry II suffered misfortune of Bryansk and retreated to winter in Eagle, where he was joined by the new Polish-Lithuanian forces (troops Vishnevetzkogo, Hruslinskogo, Lisowski, etc.). Roman Rozhen led an army to Eagle — 4 thousand fighter. He became the new leader of the military impostor. Joined the army of the pretender and the Cossacks — winter 1607-1608 gg. Eagle came in 5 thousand and 3 thousand Don Cossacks. They led Ataman Ivan Martinovich Zarutsky. By the spring strength of the army of Hetman Rozhen rose to 27 thousand people.

SHUISKI delighted victory over Bolotnikova underestimated the degree of danger looming over the state by the forces of the False Dmitry II. March 30, 1608 False Dmitry II troops under the command of Colonel Lisowski defeated the Ryazan-Arzamasskoye militia under the control of the governor and I. Z. Lyapunov Khovanskii that is sent to the oppression of the uprising. Exceptionally, in April 1608 the governor sent against the new pretender 40 th. army under the Duke Dmitry Shumsky (brother of the king). The decisive battle took place on the Kamenka River, 10 miles from Bolhova 30 April -1 May (May 10-11). Fight the enemy's attack began with the avant-garde — Hussar mouth and Cossack squadrons, but they broke on the counter attack head Russian nobility hired German regiments and mouth. From the defeat of progressive forces repelled an impostor only the arrival of the main forces. Shelves Adam Rozhen (nephew of Commander) and Valavsk pushed Advanced regiment under the Prince Vasily Golitsyn. But is the enemy of success failed. To the aid of advanced regiment came Patrol Regiment under the command of Ivan Kurakins (he was one of the best generals since). The troops were stopped by an impostor. Battle continued on subsequent day or dawn. Russian governor successfully positioned the army in a fortified camp, which approaches from the front closed the swamp. Frontal attack enemy troops failed. Then Rozhen moved his reserves into the flank of the Russian army, the Poles had a successful demonstration, pretending that it is approaching brand new Polish-Cossack army. Alarmed Shuya began to divert troops. The enemy went to drastic coming and taking advantage of the confusion in the actions of government troops broke through the front. The army was defeated Dmitry Shumsky.

After the victory at Bolhovu way to Moscow was open. Kozel'sk and Kaluga voluntarily recognized "king", Borisov was left residents. Mozhaisk resisted but was quickly captured (army imposter seized the battle of Bolhovu royal artillery). SHUISKI, alarmed by the situation, removed from the command of his own mediocre brother and put at the head of the army Skopina-Shumsky. But the latest battle did not. Skopin-Shumsky disclosed in the army komplot, the head of which were Katyrev-Rostov, Troubetzkoy and Troyekurov. The governor withdrew the army in the capital and decided to hold the fort in the town.

June 24, 1608 military impostor came to Moscow and camped in Tushino. Moscow to take troops Falsdmitry failed and was created in Tushino second government, then met its Boyar Duma, work orders. In Tushino brought his wife and False Dmitry I Mnishek Marina, which recaptured the royal troops. She quickly get along with the new impostor, and recognized him as his spouse. Almost 18 months of siege lasted Moscow the "Tushino thief." At this time, some nobles and clerks people several times moved from the capital to the Tushino back and got the nickname "Tushino flights."

Caught in a difficult situation, SHUISKI decided to ask for help from Sweden, who was an opponent of the Commonwealth. February 28, 1609 a contract was signed Vyborg. The Swedish side pledged to help bring Shumsky five thousand mercenaries (two thousand cavalry and three thousand infantry), the metropolitan government promised to pass, Sweden, Korela with the county (Kexholmsky region). Soon the number of Swedish case has been brought up to 15 thousand people, it was headed by the commander of the Swedish army in Finland, Lieutenant-General Jacob De la Gardie. Expenditure on the Swedish army fell on the shoulders of the Russian government. First Swedish troops arrived at the Russian countryside in March, and in Novgorod — in the middle of April 1609 In the spring of 1609 Russian-Swedish army under the command of Skopina-Shumsky (he was negotiating with the Swedes) started coming. Detachments "Tushino thief" who operated in the North, were defeated.

Start the Polish intervention

Polish ruler Sigismund III, who claimed the Swedish throne (he took his younger brother Charles IX), used the alliance of Moscow and Sweden against the "Tushinites" as a reason for the invasion and declared war on Russia. The campaign against the Russian country was conceived by the Polish government before the signing of the Treaty of Vyborg. So, in January 1609 the Polish Senate gave the king agreed to prepare the invasion force. September 9, 1609 22 th. Polish army ran across the Russian border and 16 September besieged Smolensk. Only the heroic defense of Smolensk foiled plans march on Moscow. Rome appropriated tremendous importance to this campaign and Pope Paul V, according to the custom of the first crusades, blessed sent to the Vatican to hike sword and helmet of the Polish monarch.

Smolensky garrison and the townspeople are excellent plans thwarted the enemy — patron of the town under the governor Misha Shein, were able to delay the enemy the walls of the fortress of almost two years. The Polish army was anemic and could not continue the offensive. At that time, Russian-Swedish army continued success coming and crushing units Tushinites. Well, Tushino camp had not the best of times. Much of the most combat-ready troops went north, deter troops Skopina-Shumsky. June 5, 1609 royal troops fled to the coming of Moscow and nearly defeated the impostor. Moscow's troops were coming under the guise of "walking-city." Poles stormed and seized the mobile fieldwork, but this time from the right wing struck a heavy blow aristocratic cavalry. Tushinites suffered heavy losses and fled. From the complete destruction of the Cossacks helped Zarutsky, which had hardened on the river and kept Khimki head of the royal cavalry.

Skopin-Shumsky continued successful movement. With fights unleashed Pereiaslavl-Zaleski, Alexander suburb, defeated near Dmitrov forces Jan Sapieha. In addition, with the start of the campaign the army of the Polish king, nobles left part of the pretender, and went to Smolensk. The remaining lords sought funds from it and kept under guard. At the end of December 1609 Dmitry II managed to escape and arrived in Kaluga. Tushino camp deprived of official leader of the collapsed completely. March 12, 1610 Skopina-Shumsky exalted met the inhabitants of Moscow. By eliminating the danger from Tushinites, the young captain began to prepare for a campaign to force the Poles besieged Smolensk. But on April 23, he died suddenly.

His death was for the Russian country tragic consequences. Army, which was to head Skopin-Shumsky, took its beginning the unluckiest captain — Dmitry Shumsky. June 24, 1610 near the village of Klushino Russian-Swedish army was defeated by the Polish army Hetman Stanislaw Zolkiewski. The main prerequisite for the defeat of the Russian army were big mistakes commander and betrayal of French and German mercenaries from the Swedish case.

After the defeat at Klushino Swedish general
Delagardi moved north and began to capture the Russian countryside. He acted in accordance with the summary of their own government, in it he owed in the event of success of the Polish troops, to seize and hold Novgorod. De la Gardie, with the traitor, was able to break into the Novgorod. After heavy street fighting, the city fell. Novgorod authorities in the person of Metropolitan Isidor and governor Ivan Odoevskogo went to sign a separate contract. They handed over the castle and recognized the right to the throne of the 1st of the Swedish prince. The Swedes had planned, in the event of failure of city government to urge the Russian throne Swedish prince, a vassal to the Novgorod government. There was a threat of loss of the north-western edge.

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