In the late 16th century by the Russian government collapsed a number of disasters. Land have been destroyed long Livonian War and confrontation with the Crimean Khanate (Crimean Tatars twice came to Moscow — in 1571 and 1591's.). 10's of thousands of inhabitants of the central Russian regions were killed, were taken into captivity or fled to the suburbs. People left the war, the growth of extortion, becoming free men. I must say that one of the unexpected positive impacts, was the fact that the more dense settlement of the Urals and Siberia, their economic development.
The government, concerned about the exodus of draft power of the population, causing declining inexorably go unpaid taxes and fell fighting ability, strength of the army, began to restrict the personal freedom of the rural population. In the 1590's were introduced "forbidden years" — a ban on the transition from the 1st to another landowner on St. George's day and "a portion to the summer" — a five-year period ("class") investigation and return of fugitive farmers in its place. It was a step in the direction of the enslavement of the peasantry.
Domestic prepyadstviya country have been compounded by natural disasters. Three years in a row — 1601-1603 years. Were barren, even in summer frosts, weeks were heavy rains and snow fell in September. Began a terrible famine, disease and epidemic cholera. By some estimates, Our homeland has lost up to a third of the population. Lord kicked out of their own slaves, servants, farmers, so as not to feed them. A huge gang of robbers who looted and ravaged the whole neighborhood. Spontaneous "thieves" movement enveloped around 19 central, western and southern parts of the country. For example, in 1603 the government had to bring troops to fight with a group of Cotton (Cotton), which numbered about 500 people. Cotton was able to reincarnate own unit in a well-organized military unit. His detachment operated outside Moscow at the Smolensk, Tver Volokolamsk and roads. The government underestimated the danger bondsmen detachment sent against him a small detachment of archers led by Ivan Fedorovich Basmanov courtier. September 9, 1603 archers were ambushed courtier died, but the royal warriors were able to beat the band of cotton, though, and suffered heavy losses. The wounded chieftain was brought to Moscow and put together with other captured thieves. It was the first mass execution since the reign of Boris Godunov.
The government has failed to solve the problem of speculation — many boyars, negotiators and monasteries had large supplies of grain, but hid it or sell it for a lot of money. Thousands of people flocked to the eastern and southern suburbs — the lower reaches of the Don, the Volga, on Yaik (Ural) and Siberia. This seriously destabilize the situation in the country — the people were dissatisfied with the government, there were crowds of "thieves". Personal authority of Boris Godunov fell sharply, because he was not a "natural-born monarch." You can not forget about the activity of the "fifth column" since — "agents of influence" of Rome, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the knights clan that sought to decentralize the country by dividing it into "fiefdoms." Troubles Began — excellent Russian crisis of civilization caused by a number of internal and external circumstances, which shook to its foundations Metropolitan Government and the whole society.
In 1601 in Poland has man, who gave himself the Prince Dmitry Ivanovich, "legitimate sovereign" which Tipo magically escaped Sent Boris Godunov killers. In the story he entered as False Dmitry I. Officially, it was a runaway monk Gregor (Yuri) Otrepyev Bogdanovich, who fled to Lithuania. He belonged to a noble but impoverished old Lithuanian Nelidova. Father Gregory Bogdan rented land from Nikita Romanovich Zakharyin (grandfather of the future king of Misha). Gregory (Yuri) entered the service of Misha Nikitich Romanov (brother of Theodore Nikiticha Romanov coming Patriarch Filaret and uncle of the first king of the Romanov Mikhail Fedorovich). So Makar, the first impostor was tightly interwoven with a native of the Romanovs.
In addition, there are other versions of the origin of False Dmitry. Almost all of them by or otherwise associated with Rome, the Jesuits and Poland. Thus, according to the witness of the Troubles Conrad Bussova, German mercenary in the Russian service, it was the illegal son of former Polish King Stefan Batory Foundation, which Gregory Otrepyev taught "all that was needed for implementation of project." According to this version komplot was born in Moscow, where dissatisfied know Boris Godunov, invented a plan to "seize control" in the Russian state. According to another version, it was a genuine prince Dmitry exported to Poland and trained by the Jesuits there. Russian writer, historian second half of the 19th century. — The beginning of the 20th century. NM Pavlov believed that the impostor had two, one — Gregory Otrepyev sent from Moscow, and the other — unknown Pole, which is specifically prepared for their role Jesuits, he played the role of False Dmitry. It must be said that the final answer to the question about the identity of the first pretender to the current time there. But one thing we know for sure, Rome and his "tools" (the Jesuits, Poland) played a huge role in fueling the Troubles in Russia.
Impostor, using a Latent Polish King Sigismund III, scored a small army — about 4 million people and 13 October 1604 has crossed the border of the Russian country. Soon he took possession of the first fortress — Monastyrevskim the prison. He received tremendous support from the local population — many Russian people believe in salvation raschudesno Prince Dmitry and stood under the banners of "legitimate sovereign." Taking advantage of the support of the population in southern Russian cities, Lzhedmitry headed for significant success — and seized the Chernigov Putivl. In the camp of the impostor fled Bogdan Sutupov he drove treasury army of Boris Godunov, which opposed the False Dmitry. The stubborn resistance of the False Dmitry had only Novgorod-Seversky, where the defense was headed by Governor Peter F. Basmanov. On the night of 17 to 18 November 1604 the garrison repulsed the assault detachments of the impostor suffered significant losses. But the territory, controlled by the False Dmitry, expanded rapidly at the end of November, the authorities recognized Ryl'sk and Kursk, Komaritskii parish, first of December — Over and Okolenskaya parish.
Boris Godunov, alarmed by the successes of the impostor, strengthened the garrison Falcon and sent to the aid Basmanova huge army under the Duke Fedor Mstsislauye. It was the first dignitary of the country, which is three times the king could choose — in 1598, 1606 and 1611., But he preferred to be on the sidelines, leading a double play. In the future, be a party to overthrow Mstislavsky Falsdmitry managing the Seven Boyars, elected king Wladyslaw Sigismundovich, and after the expulsion of the Poles — Misha Romanov. Mstislav had under his command an army of 25 thousand (and with the fighting slaves, probably about 40 thousand), and the False Dmitry was less than 15 thousand fighter. But the initiative was on the side of the impostor. December 21, 1604 at the Battle of Novgorod-Seversky, the Polish hussars overthrew the Russian right flank and beating the center of the Russian position, knocked at the rate Mstsislauye. The dignitary was injured, but it helped the archers came to the rescue. Management of Russian troops was broken and Moscow regiments moved to the baggage. Because of the lack of coordinati
on of the Polish troops, the army Mstsislauye managed to avoid huge losses, though defeated.
In January 1605, having received reinforcements, Russian army defected again to action. Forces Godunov, which increased to 50 thousand men, besides Mstsislauye, commanded by Prince Vasily Shumsky. Russian governor Sevsk moved to town, near which, in Chemlyzhskom prison, housed army impostor. January 20 Moscow shelves occupied village Dobrynichi 20 miles from Sevsk. In the night from 20 to 21 January 23 — thousand Polish-Cossack army False Dmitry I acted out of Sevsk to wreak unexpected blow to the capital's army. But the attempt was foiled due care patrol. Russian governor had to build shelves to fit Dobrynichami. Mistakes that led to the defeat in Novgorod-Seversky, were taken into account. Standing in the center streletskaya infantry from the front and flanks covered wagon trains, among them 14 guns installed. The cavalry were placed on the flanks, slightly ahead of the main position.
The attack on the metropolitan army was headed by Dmitrii. Initially, the Poles and Cossacks accompanied success — troops overthrew the impostor hired horse company, which stood on the right flank and pushed the Russian regiment the right hand (it was run by V. Shumsky). But when the Poles turned around and tried to hit the front and side of the Russian infantry, fully justified itself foresight of the Russian command. The enemy's cavalry was met with strong rifle and cannon fire, and was not able to overcome the "wall" transports. Cavalry impostor took flight. Cossack infantry Falsdmitry, deprived of horse cover, was surrounded and destroyed. Remnants of the impostor fled to the border.
The final defeat of the "prince" was saved by the heroic defense of the Cossack garrison small fortress Kromy and passive strategy of the royal governor, who led a "double game". Under the walls of the fortress of the royal army was delayed forever. This allowed the impostor to bounce back from defeat, to make up his troops. In late January — early February on the side Falsdmitry I ran over Belgorod, Tsarev, Borisov, in March — Elec and Livny.
Capture of Moscow. Death of an impostor
April 13, 1605 died suddenly Boris Godunov. This dramatically changed the situation in the country. Krom sent to the besieged troops at the start of the new Mishi Katyreva-Rostov and Peter Basmanova. In the royal army appeared branched komplot in favor of "legitimate sovereign." His active participants was Prince Vasily Golitsyn and his half-brother Peter Basmanov. May 7 in the army started a riot. Falsdmitry defected to the side of the nobility hundreds of Ryazan, Tula, Kashira, Alexina, Seversky cities, German mercenaries Captain Walter Rosen. Other troops from the governors of Rostov-Katyrevym M., A. Telyatevsky, V. Morozov and others hastily moved to Moscow.
Falsdmitry troops moved to the Russian capital of the country. In Moscow, July 1, 1605 a rebellion broke out, which organized the emissaries of the impostor — G. Pushkin and Nikolai Plescheev. They read in reddish village on the Red Square and the letter "prince." He announced to the people about their salvation and sought raschudesno loyalty from the people, promising all the "peace and quiet and blagodenstvennoe habitation", lowering taxes. Generous promises raised people to revolt. The rebels, with the connivance of the boyars government under arrest Theodore II, his mother and sister Ksjushu in the Kremlin. The fate of deposed king was sealed — 10 June deposed ruler and his mother had been strangled in his Kremlin home, their bodies were put on public display. The people declared that they were poisoned. Princess Ksjushu spared some time she was the concubine of an impostor (he was hungry for women), and then became a nun.
The murder of Fyodor Godunov. Painting K. Makovsky (1862).
June 20, 1605 impostor triumphantly entered the capital. However, his reign was short-lived. The country fell into the abyss, and in order to begin to rise, it was necessary to achieve the very bottom sup sorrow full measure. Pretender porazdaval lot of promise and his Western backers and allies in Russia. Part of it is performed. Lzhedmitry spent amnesty by returning of the links of the boyars and princes who were in disgrace in Boris Godunov and Theodore, taxable benefits granted southern Russian towns, abolished taxes in the South for 10 years, gave the Cossacks returned to the farmers the right to go to St. George's day, began to reorient foreign policy of the Russian Federation on Poland's interests, etc.
But the one bestowed by the hand of an impostor, while the other took away. For example, numerous "gifts" to faithful men, the cost of getting married, embezzlement by preparing a campaign against the Turks, etc., have led to a significant increase in tax revenues in regions that do not have privileges. Many outraged by the fact that the new ruler (he called himself king or Caesar), surrounded himself with foreigners and people of other religions, constantly violated Russian Orthodox tradition. Thus, impostor organized under foreign guard own person, which provided his personal safety, having discharged Russian royal guard, made only consisted of Poles "secret office" — it included the captain Maciej Domaratsky, Stanislav Borsa, Michael Sklinsky and personal secretary of King Jan Buchinsky, and Stanislav Slonsky Lipnitsky. As a result, part of the Russian nobility, who thought that the new government will be their puppet seriously miscalculated.
Even more heated the situation in the capital on wedding Falsdmitry noble Polish girl Mnishek Marina, the daughter of the Sandomierz governor Jerzy (George) Mnishek. With his wife and her family arrived in Moscow to a Polish unit in the 6 million people (according to the Polish data, about 1 million). On gifts Poles were spent heavily. For example, the Marina as a wedding present received a box of jewels at the cost of 500 million gold rubles. In addition, another 100 thousand were sent to Poland for payment of debts. May 8, 1606 Marina dubbed the queen and accomplished pyshnovataya wedding. Dinners, balls and festivities followed one by one, during a multi-day celebration of the "guests" in an intoxicated revelry broke into the home of Muscovites, raping women, robbing passers-by shooting in the air, shouting that they were not government edict because they put him on the throne. Brash behavior of the Poles, who behaved in Moscow as a favorite, was a major factor that led to the success of the boyars komplota.
May 14, 1606 SHUISKI (he was in June tried to organize a coup, but was discovered and sent into exile) brought people loyal to him and outlined a plan of action. It was decided on Saturday to knock the alarm and raise the people under the pretext of protecting the king from the Poles. May 15 Basil Shuya entered denunciation, but an impostor lightly waved him off. May 16 was given the ball in a new royal palace, after the governor went to his wife. He was again warned about komplote, but he is still not perceived the information seriously. At night Shumsky reduced the German guards at the palace, freed prisoners and gave people a tool. 17 (27), Shuya ordered the hit on Ilyinka the alarm, he was supported by other ringers. Shumsky and his supporters entered the Red Square and began yelling that "Lithuania" wants to kill the king, and claimed, that the townspeople rose up to defend the emperor. The trick succeeded, excited people rushed to kill Poles.
Shuya broke into the Kremlin and gave the order to destroy the 'evil heretic. " The small German mercenaries were swept away, all approximate impostor fled. Only Peter Basmanov tried to protect the False Dmi
try, and was killed. The governor tried to run away, got out of the window and wanted to get down on Forests (palace was under construction), but tripped and fell. The wounded impostor picked archers, he promised them estates and property rebellious boyars, for protection. Sagittarians are in response to the demands of the rebels to give an impostor, ask Martha (Maria Feodorovna Naked, the last wife of Ivan IV), has once again confirmed that Dimitri — her son, in the unlikely event — "God is in it is free." By Martha sent a messenger, the messenger returned — it was Prince Ivan Golitsyn clicked, the Queen said, as if her son had died in Uglich. After that, son Gregory Boyarsky Valuev shot impostor.
To be continued …