D. Mc Campbell
New approaches to the problem of unidentified flying objects from the point of view of science and common sense
CHAPTER III. GLOW UFO
Along with the size, shape and structural details of UFO describes another important feature: their luminosity and color. Judging by the descriptions of the 923 meetings with fellow UFO, almost half of the observers felt the need to tell something about their color (1). Observers used a tremendous amount of variety of terms to describe the color of UFOs, for example, "silver", "glowing", "bright blue", "flaming orange", "dazzling."
However, if you carefully look into them, it emerges amazing and suitable representation of this aspect of the UFO phenomenon.
First of all, note that at any given time the observer sees the most any one color or the coloring of UFOs. Therefore, we believe that UFOs decorate one way or another depending on some certain conditions.
Features color or colors of UFOs reported by observers can be divided into five distinct categories, covering 1) describe the type of metal surface, 2) a description of the so-called soft glow, 3) a description of the rainbow colors of light, 4) a description of bright white light, and, finally, 5) a description of multi-colored UFO.
Here is the typical terminology of the first four categories:
Kind of soft metallic color brightness and character
surface glow glow of white light
Aluminum shining white orange burning magnesium
Dazzling Red Herring
Metal glowing orange-red is very bright
Chrome bright bluish fluorescent
Glowing yellow strong
Mirror dazzling blue-green
If you report more than one color glow UFO, the observers often point: whether they saw different colors at the same time, or they were replaced in any sequence. Therefore, the fifth category is divided into two light effects: simultaneous and consecutive.
Here are the latest examples of the descriptions according to 447 reports of encounters with UFOs listed Zh.Valle.
Simultaneous Serial iridescence iridescence
Blue, green and orange from orange to fluorescent
Multi-color variable from white to red
Yellow-orange and blue-green with reddish-orange to oc-
lepitelno white edges
Very bright with a dark bottom from white to yellow, then to the blue
and then to green
Blue, red and green stripes from white to greenish-blue
Occurs and this option: — from red to white with a blue glow from the bottom. In this embodiment, a combination of color changes that take place at a constant blue color of the underside of the UFO.
Let us now consider each category is more or less detail.
1. Metal surfaces
Fifty-two witnesses described the UFO metal surfaces:
Number of Observations * Terms The basic meaning
13 Gold, silver Silver
6 aluminum, similar to aluminum Aluminium
13 chrome, bright, mirror-polished
12 Grey metallic, dark gray matt
*) Some observations were taken into account twice.
Except for the last 12 observations in all the other's messages clearly wanted to point to a bright polished surfaces on the "whiteness" of the metal.
11 cases of the last 12 years occurred in low light or at night, or at dusk. Under a cloudy sky or in a haze of jet liner made of bright aluminum looks dull gray or dark gray bottom.
Thus, these messages will not hesitate to refer to the descriptions of the metal surfaces.
Most of us in his daily experience occurs with very few white metals: aluminum, chrome auto parts, stainless steel. Naturally, the white metals and are usually described by their similarity with the usual metal object. Given that some unknown metals are also white, descriptions given by observers, can not be taken at face value.
We imagine what the requirements are to present to the flight characteristics of structural metals and energy UFOs. Given the requirements of strength, weight and thermal stability, a good candidate in the materials of construction for the UFO is titanium and magnesium. Some of the "fragments" UFO exploded in South America, has been carefully analyzed, were of exceptionally pure magnesium (2).
Some of these samples were analyzed later in the University of Colorado. Surprisingly, they found high levels of strontium. It is known that strontium is not added in the commercial magnesium. Despite this interesting result, it was announced that the crystal structure of the samples indicates that they probably were not part of any artificial products. It was concluded that these samples do not have any "extra-terrestrial composition," so that readers prompted the thought that these samples could never be part of the UFO (3).
At the same time, the Commission published regardless of Condon's work dissident authors stated that the metallurgy of these samples is totally unique in nature (4).
With almost complete certainty can be assumed that the metal construction of spacecraft visiting Earth, consist exclusively of the known elements. The technological superiority of the aliens can manifest itself in the unusual purity of new compounds and crystal structures. But not necessarily.
Modern earth science is able to provide kosimchesky flight involving human subjects. Therefore, we can assume that any new discoveries in the steel industry in order to ensure the arrival of foreign visitors to the Earth, is required. In other words, there is no reason to expect that the material fragments of a UFO must be some kind of "extraterrestrial" composition.
Observers often refer to the transparent windows and domes of UFOs. In two meetings with the observations of UFO witnesses felt that the whole object is transparent. In one of these cases, a disc-shaped object flying over a cyclist 5 kilometers to a height of 6 meters. "He lit up and seemed to be made of glass" (6). In another case, the witnesses who were in the car has stopped, saw the UFO people inside the 'bright, clear, mushroom-shaped object "(7). These two cases is too small to justify the assumption of a separate category of UFOs, but they should be considered as a possible indication of some promising technology, in which, a transparent metal.
2. The soft glow of
"Metal" appearance of UFOs, discussed above, is a consequence of the reflection of light from shiny surfaces. However, observers often point to the fact that the UFO light itself. Unlike many varieties of white or colored light, which presumably related to UFOs, in some cases, notice the light emission from the entire facility or from nearby neighborhoods UFO. Handling of observers to the term "UFO Spark" suggest the possibility of some electrical phenomena as causes arcing. Enough power electrical discharge in the air surrounding the UFO gives a soft white glow. This discharge is known under the name of the Crown. It can sometimes be seen at night power line, but is not visible in the afternoon. The corona discharge can be the basis of a clear distinction between UFOs as, for example, a metal disk, visible by day and a diffuse flame are often observed at night. The area is adjacent to the corona discharge surface UFO gradually dissipated within a short distance and looks like a "halo", often described by observers.
Unfortunately, the conventional corona discharge, apparently, does not explain the white light UFO.
In atmospheric conditions conducive to electrical breakdown, corona discharge occurs at an electric field strength of about 3,000,000 volts per meter (8). The ability to create such intense electric fields in the vicinity of large objects, like a UFO, with smoothly curved surfaces, it is "very remote."
Be that as it may, we can assume that the soft white glow UFO due to the fact that UFOs are:
a) a high negative potential relative to the Earth, causing the leakage of negative charges with a UFO in the atmosphere;
b) a variable potential, exciting the atoms of gases in the vicinity of the UFO;
c) the properties of antennas that emit energy in the atmosphere due to the alternating current in the casing of a UFO.
3. Rainbow colors of UFOs
UFO is credited with almost all colors of the rainbow. In typical messages can be found mention of nearly all colors of the spectrum from violet to red.
Here are descriptions of the table according to the color of the UFO reports. In this table, the vertical straight lines shown in the messages mentioned mixture of pure components, in particular purple glow formed by the blue and red light [see photo].
Reports that the UFO was "surrounded by a red glow" (10) or "sheltered blue haze" (11) clearly indicate that the source of the luminosity of the UFO is not the object itself, and the surrounding atmosphere.
Is it possible to establish the nature of the luminescence which specific atoms are responsible for it? Yes, the second is possible.
The second table of this section, we present data on the content of various gases in parts per million by volume and the number of data of spectral lines in the visible spectrum. Polluting gases, such as hydrocarbons, we do not count.
Difficulty of finding sources of spectral lines for our purposes are facilitated by several factors. First, reports indicate individual "pure" colors. Secondly, the intensity of the lines is not the same.
Gaza Number of parts per million Estimated number of
Nitrogen 780.840 79
Oxygen 209.406 79
Argon 9.340 219
300 7 Carbon Dioxide
Neon 18.18 153
Helium 5.24 9
Krypton 58 1.14
Xenon 0,086 51
Hydrogen 0.5 5
Acetylene 0.02 —
Relatively few bright lines dominate. If a limited amount of energy affects the gas mixture, then begin to emit light only those atoms for which this energy is enough. We have in mind the threshold ionization potentials (13), shown in the third table for some gas.
Gaza ionization potentials (eV)
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
Nitrogen 14.53 29.59 47.43 77.45
Oxygen 13.61 35.11 51.89 77.39
Argon 16.76 27.62 40.9 59.79
Neon 21.56 41.07 63.5 97.02
Krypton 14.00 24.56 36.90 43.50
Hydrogen 13.60 —
More easily excited xenon, whose ionization potential of the first level is only 12.13 eV. Under normal conditions, the earth's atmosphere is not lit because the excitation energy is insufficient, xenon atoms do not get it at the right level. Suppose that unknown to us means UFO delivers the surrounding gas is gradually increasing amounts of energy. At a certain moment the atmosphere will absorb enough energy to begin to glow. Beginning of this luminescence put xenon. Next, begin to excite other gases and their light is simply added to the glow of xenon.
In the case of some of the resonance phenomenon is possible to individually excitement of the individual gases in the sequences corresponding to a change of the order of colors glow.
It would be possible to bring sophisticated statistical and physical aspects of the opportunities before us, but, apparently, to understand our reasoning, it is not necessary. Neutral xenon atom emits three distinct closely spaced spectral lines in the center of the blue band of the spectrum. Therefore, the light from the xenon has an intense blue color. There are good reasons to believe that xenon is solely responsible for the "blue", "bright blue" and "glowing blue" color of light UFO, mentioned in the reports of observers.
The source of this light, we believe it is xenon and this is our choice supported by the fact that no other neutral gas in the atmosphere does not give the blue photons.
There is one more point for doubt: the xenon in the atmosphere a little. However, at normal temperature and pressure of the air contains 6.06 h1023 free atoms and molecules in the volume of 22.4 liters. If xenon 0,036 parts per million, the number of xenon atoms in the amount of 2.3 x 1013, i.e. quite enough that we could watch the glow of xenon.
Table 4 [see photo] we present data on the wavelengths of light colors, the gas components of the atmosphere and of the threshold values of the ionization potentials (14).
As a hypothetical UFO increases energy release into the atmosphere, there are other emission colors. "The orange-red" or "fierce-red" glow, so often noticed near the UFO, it is likely can be attributed to a bright orange-red neon line (6402 A). Combined glow neon green line (5401 A) with a xenon blue lines should give "blue-green" color, which is often reported.
It is possible that the source of this radiation is hydrogen (4861 A). "Purple" glow coins be due to the excitation of xenon (blue line) and argon (red line 6965 A). The above statements have not been confirmed, but nevertheless are conjectural reasonable explanation for the different illuminations UFO. The most suitable candidates for the role of colored illumination sources are helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon. These inert gases are preferably used in gas lasers. Almost all of the radiation from the ionized noble gas lasers lies in the range of infrared and far infrared light. Only neon can make such transitions in which visible light is released. This glow seedyo defined spectral lines with wavelengths between 5939 and 6401 A. All are within the orange area.
On the other hand, many of the spectral lines in the region of visible light excited ionized atoms of said noble gases. There are about 340 lines (16). A completely different kind of stimulated emission of light, which does not need the ionization takes place in the dissociation of atoms and molecules, in which atoms are released in the excited state (17).
Since the operation of the laser depends strongly on the critical geometry of the device and the gas pressure is usually very low, probably impossible, to laser effect as such was responsible for the luminosity of a UFO.
But the principle of the maser, perhaps, is the working principle of the mechanism of the luminosity of a UFO. With this mechanism UFO give energy to the atmosphere. It uses radio-or even higher-frequency electromagnetic energy. Moving in this direction, we find a number of clues UFO.
4. The glow of dazzling brightness
Sometimes the light emitted by the UFO is so intense that completely hides the surface of the object from the observer. To describe their impressions observers use any of the terms of the "flame of the arc" to "burning magnesium." It also happens that the monitors directly linked dazzling bright glow from its source in the form of the object, it represents a metal. When an object falls to the ground, the glow fades and reveals the object itself. Conversely, metal structures UFOs, originally observed on Earth, get blindingly bright glow, and then quickly disappear from view. Links observers to "welding flame" to justify an attempt to consider welding and related phenomena for understanding the bright white light UFO.
In the conventional welding process used by burning a mixture of acetylene and oxygen at about 3300 ° C. At these temperatures, the gas molecules are ionized, which then, returning to its original state, emit bright light. To avoid trevm, the eyes have to defend screens. In a continuous arc welding develop somewhat lower temperature. Bright light lanterns is a manifestation of the coal of the same process. In the study of the emission of electric sparks in the air, in visible light, there are more than 300 spectral lines. Almost all of these lines are connected to the excitation of nitrogen, oxygen and, to a lesser extent, argon (18).
In addition to artificial sources of light, you can take into account the natural glow. In the conventional lightning discharge gas temperature in the spark path rises fraction of a second to about 14,000 ° C, causing ionization of most gases (19). The rapid expansion of hot gases causes thunder.
The color of light from the lightning flashes typical of electric sparks in the air. The mention of thunder accompanying the lightning, it is appropriate, as the witnesses speak about UFOs as a very "silent" sites or mention of them published by the soft, hissing noise.
Very rarely in UFO sightings hear loud explosive noises. Never informed of these observers standard bright light of the object (see "Sounds"). We believe that a blinding light emitted by a UFO, is not associated with very high temperatures. Moreover, because no report about the roaring schumah that usually accompany long-term discharges of electricity in the air, to the extent it can be concluded that the bright glow of a UFO appears at temperatures very moderate in comparison with the temperature of lightning.
It is of interest and another natural phenomenon — ball lightning. They formed a bright glowing gas sector, with sizes ranging from grapes to oranges. These areas are drifting lazily at a height of several meters off the ground for about 1-5 seconds. Sometimes they can last for a minute or so. Fireballs makes a hissing noise. It is not known whether they emit thermal radiation. But it is well known that ball lightning can cause a fire at the facility, which will concern, and that it disappears or silently, or thunder.
The phenomenon of ball lightning observed since ancient times and is considered as common as a conventional fastener (20). However, many people look fireball puzzling. Often this phenomenon remains unidentified because the observer is clear that he does not see the plane, not a bird, not a balloon, etc. Secondly, the movement of the ball lightning in the atmosphere can safely be called a "flight." Finally, it can be considered an "object" of some sort, as it clearly is not a hallucination, if ball lightning can, for example, start a fire in the chicken coop, made their way in through a crack in the door. In such cases, the fireball can be considered an unidentified flying object. However, these UFOs have very little to do with the fact UFO that interest us. And yet, given the similarity between the fireball and the UFO, do not be surprised if they are sometimes confused, and if in the literature about these UFO reports exist about the objects that are actually fireballs.
Such messages should reject (21). Attempts to explain the UFO misunderstood observations of ball lightning have given a lot of information about different types of plasma, but have not been very convincing (22). Still, UFOs and fireballs have something in common. That's what it is.
Offered numerous theories of ball lightning, but none of them does not explain the whole problem. Those more promising theory involves the formation of ball lightning plasma high-frequency electromagnetic field associated with conventional lightning. Frequency range of fields from the observations from 100 to 4000 MHz. At such frequencies of the electromagnetic field has been considerable ionization and, at the same time, there may be glowing ball formations due to the transition of electrons in orbits with different energy levels, and not due to ionization of gases (23).
Evidently, the absorption of energy, such as an oxygen atom raises it to one of two well known metastable energy level expression of the life time to 45 minutes and 8 seconds, respectively. The short lifetime of smoking, as captured by an atom excited electrons have spin value incongruous. In order to release the stored energy needed intramolecular clashes, during which there is a decrease of the energy levels due to the transfer of angular momentum. This process is accompanied, apparently the emergence of carbon dioxide with the instantaneous radiation energy stored in the form of light pulses with a continuous spectrum.
Based on the number of collisions at a temperature of about 1100 ° C, it was possible to calculate the lifetime of the metastable states. While the energy dissipation was found to be approximately one second. This value is the time interval of energy dissipation in general are not so incompatible with the lifetime of ball lightning.
Made various attempts to calculate the emission temperature of gases. One of the Soviet investigators determined that temperature value in 7800oS for ball lightning yellow glow. Other averaged significantly lower values. One observer concluded that the temperature of the emission of gases is slightly higher 2200 ° C. However, he came out of the characteristics of ozone and nitrogen dioxide measured in the wake of ball lightning. Temperature range 2200-2500 ° C is obtained and the law Wines. Note that observers often report red and red-yellow glow. Takes into account the lower temperature and, for example, 100 ° C. As observers fireballs do not report feeling heat near them, apparently, the preference should be given to the calculations, which are obtained by low temperatures.
In the phenomenon of ball lightning is clearly manifested a natural mechanism for the bright luminosity of atmospheric gases at moderate temperatures, and that this mechanism may be the cause of a similar glow UFO.
As previously mentioned, the fireball is apparently created and maintained by supply of radiant energy in a minimum frequency range from 100 to 400 MHz. This range is on the bottom left of the "end" of the electromagnetic spectrum, known under the name of the microwave region (300 — 300.000 MHz). This area is located between the poles of the frequency of frequencies used in radio broadcasting, and the frequencies of visible light. It is used in microwave ovens, for narrowcasting radio to radar, covers the special frequency band allocated by the FCC for use in the industrial, scientific and medical purposes.
The most important of these are the last frequency 915 — 2450 MHz, because it is at these frequencies work lamp that convert direct current to microwave energy with high power in the radiation. Thus, for example, is made with an average power klystron of 500 kw (24). It is estimated that similar devices operating at frequencies from 100 to 3000 MHz, the limit will be able to operate at capacity, approaching 10 MW (25).
At very low pressures, it is fairly easy to create a plasma, using microwave energy. It was possible to observe a plasma with a temperature of the gas at 700 ° K, and the electron temperature exceeds the 10,000 ° K (26). It is likely that a similar complex condition exists in a fireball and on the surfaces of UFOs when they glow with a very high brightness. The levels of ionization and luminosity of the gas in such states should be very high, whereas the temperature of the gases may remain relatively small.
The plasma of this type must be supported on the surface of the UFO only by long gas absorption of microwave energy emitted by UFOs.
Fortunately, the fireball was tested in laboratories. Thunderball was artificially created in the laboratory of Reid Frikvensi in Medfield, pieces. Massachusetts. The electromagnetic energy radiated by a transmitter in a large aluminum box at the resonant frequency. Suddenly formed a glowing ball of gas with a diameter of about 30 cm This ball was floating inside the box as long as the energy of the transmitter was turned off. Subsequent studies in the Brookhaven National Laboratory similar plasma "live" for a few seconds and then turn off the irradiation. The experimenters believe that the RF energy absorbed in their experiments with nitrogen and oxygen in the air and the temporarily stored in the metastable states of these gases (27). These conditions appear to determine the very possibility of occurrence and duration of existence Molsheim ball. If the luminosity of the brightest UFO determined in the same physical process, the reports of UFO sightings in their pictures must be hiding some clues of this phenomenon.
It is interesting in this respect, the experience Brazilians De Mendonca and its satellites. After two hours of harassment of her car saturnoobrazny UFO hovered close to the ground and remained in this state for about 15 minutes. Some time later, witnesses saw "a strange glowing mist floating in the air, where hung a UFO." They saw the fog dissipated (28). A similar item was listed under the supervision of six UFOs in Argentina. Remove the UFO left clouds of white "smoke" (29).
These observations suggest that UFOs are charged the oxygen in the atmosphere, bringing it to a metastable state at the time of hovering above the ground, and then, after flying a UFO, a slow transition to the ground state of oxygen was accompanied by the release of light.
On numerous photos of UFOs recorded tails behind that hitherto remained unexplained (30). Reporting energy atmosphere while moving in the sky, leaving a glowing UFO must wake formed by gases in a metastable state, which transmit the stored energy instantaneous light emitters. Filming of the tails should allow to obtain some quantitative data on the rate of energy transfer to the atmosphere of the speeds of the UFO. You will be able to mathematically determine the length of the tails. Intermolecular collisions of atoms represent the controlling factor in the release of stored energy. The frequency of these collisions depends on the temperature and pressure of the gases.
Because the excitability of molecules at low temperature is weakened, so far on a cold day duration of the transition to the ground state should be delayed, that is, the existence of a glowing tail should increase. The collision frequency decreases and at low pressure, so that the observability of the tails of a UFO moving at high altitudes, should be increased.
All these considerations must be clearly marked to facilitate the interpretation of the tail of light behind the ovoid object photographed from Earth orbit American astronaut Mac Divittom (31).
There is another series of facts closely, "linking" HLO with bolts of lightning.
Electrical discharges in the atmosphere initiated some important chemical processes and changes. In the field of high-voltage electric spark nitrogen atoms become extremely interesting properties; nitrogen glows soft white light, wherein the glow lasts for a while and after electric discharge is terminated. About this "exciting" nitrogen say that it has acquired the chemical activity through which connects with many other chemical elements that are usually not connected to nitrogen (32). It combines in this state with hydrogen to form ammonia (NH3) and oxygen to form nitric oxide (NO). At high temperatures this highly resistant oxide and at temperatures below 150 ° C reacts with oxygen forming nitrogen dioxide (NO2). In turn, nitrogen dioxide reacts with other atmospheric gases to form, for example, nitrobenschina (C6H5O2) — high toxicity oily substance having a strong odor resembling the odor of bitter almonds.
Electrical discharges are also developing a highly active form of oxygen — ozone (O3), which is sometimes recognize the smell near the sparking electrical appliances.
Olfactory organ in man is sensitive only. We can sense the presence of ethyl mercaptan at a concentration up to 4×10-8 milligrams per liter of air (33). The smell of ball lightning is sometimes described as "spicy, reminiscent of the smell of ozone, burning sulfur or nitrogen oxides" (34). A reference to the smell of sulfur is easy to understand, since it is this element is a major air pollutant released from the car exhaust fumes and industrial enterprises. Even in rural areas, the sulfur content in the air can be very high due to the activity of bacteria in swamps, lakes and streams (35). Opportunity to explore seriously question whether any UFOs smell, so far seems very distant. But it is enough just to peruse the message recording meetings with UFO observers to understand that they contain a lot of information on this topic.
NN cases Description odors
51 — strange stench
72 — a sharp, pungent odor
73 — the smell of burning gasoline
94 — the smell of burning sulfur
101 — an unpleasant smell
102 — the smell of ether mixed with the smell of sulfur, sickening smell
199 — smell nitrobenzina
564 — sulfur smell
615 — strong smell of balsam
616 — strong odor
684 — the smell of burnt gasoline
721 — the smell of sulfur or spoiled eggs
766 — the smell of sulfur
632 — the smell of sulfur
844 — the smell of burnt wiring
879 — strong smell of molten iron
Descriptions mentioning the smell of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are the most numerous. Also mention the smell of petrol and its derivatives. The term "corrosive" and links to the smell of electrical devices is almost certainly associated with ozone. In any case, all these certificates are an independent source of information suggesting the presence of electrical discharges on the surfaces of UFO associated with their luminosity.
Next, you indicate a direct link between the chemical aspects of the processes of electric discharge and microwave energy observed in the experiment. Irradiation of various gases at microwave frequencies, giving a wide range of atoms and free radicals necessary for various chemical recombination. Irratsiatsiya air makes nitric oxide. The efficiency of this reaction is greatly increased during pulse irradiation with microwave energy. Ethane and methane decompose into carbon and hydrogen. Petrol remains stable. In other words, pulsed discharge of microwave energy in the air forms nitrogen oxides, and, in subsequent reactions, and the fuel whose presence is marked near UFO (36).
Since petrol in the microwave field is not decomposed, then the concentration increases, and finally it became palpable. In a laboratory experiment with microwaves can be obtained by oxidation of sulfur, namely the conversion of sulfur dioxide trioxide. Oksilenie atmospheric sulfur dioxide to form messages may cause a "sulphurous" odor (37).
5. Sequential iridescence UFO
From the above reasoning, apparently can be concluded that the energy radiated UFO responsible for atmospheric glow in the vicinity of these objects. Moreover, different color of this light probably associated with different intensity energy transfer from a UFO in the atmosphere. It is therefore possible to distinguish between different energy states of the nature of the UFO glow.
Not being a complete picture, we can represent these states as follows:
View the state of UFO glow physical basis
0 metallic UFO sufficient energy output
to excite luminescence
1 blue light excites only the xenon
2 orange-red St.. Selective excitation of neon
3 white glow Degeneration metastable nitrogen
4 bright white glow Limited ionization of gases
together with the "mechanism of ball lightning"
If all of these categories are real, we can hope it will be possible to find a connection between the color of the UFO and the nature of their movement. This connection notice at least since 1956.
"The glow of a UFO in Vidin, has something to do with the speed or, more likely, the nature of the acceleration. Silvery-gray color with a dark red halo is visible when the object is stationary or moving very slowly. Then there is a bright red glow … At high accelerations, it turns white, green, blue and purple "(36).
Progress in understanding the relationships and dynamics of UFO glow small. However, our model may be useful.
When two drivers got out of her car to watch the object hanging at low altitude, "its color changed from orange to green fluorescent, and then he flew away" (39).
Obviously, while the object was stationary, the prevailing state of the second glow, and the color change was preceded by acceleration. The initial orange coloration was determined by photons with wavelengths between 5850 A and 6470 A and originated from the reduction of green photons with wavelengths in the range from 4912 A to 5750 A. The photons create the sensation of green luminescence have shorter wavelengths and higher energy level, than their yellow relatives. Thus, changes in the glow from orange to green is associated with an increase in the energy emitted by the atoms. From the above definitions of color bars you can easily calculate the minimum and maximum energy change, assuming that the light intensity is constant. Changes in emission color can occur with increasing energy output UFO 5-24%. It can be assumed that the orange glow of neon Light of determined on a wavelength of about 5402 A.
However, neon is clearly visible line and in the green region of the spectrum with a wavelength of 5401 A. With this increase of power lines should be equal to about 5401 A. The fact that the acceleration pump UFO started more energy into the atmosphere, clearly. However, further analysis of events obscured the complexities associated with the efficiency of absorption of energy by atoms neopredlennosti nature of this mechanism, the uncertainties in the transition probability characteristics of light emitting atoms and the different sensitivity of the human eye to different colors of light. Thus, although often report a green glow, can not yet be meaningfully attributed this luminescence any definite line state.
The observer saw the UFO glowing oval object rising from the flat roof of the house, and that "the object's color changed from white to red" (40). In this report, there is no information on how to change the color of the object, if there was any change in the sequence of colors, whether the reversibility of this change. But it at least indicates that the change in luminescence color was clearly linked to the fact climb lift object. In another case, an oval-shaped object followed the car of a woman over 13 kilometers. Its color is "suddenly changed from reddish-orange to blue-white, and then the object was dispersed and disappeared from view" (41). As a prelude to overclocking on this UFO "hit the gas" and moved from state 2 to state 4.
"Bluish" component of the glow is clearly linked to the 4th state. The arc gives a component of the glow.
An object with an oval top superstructure hung on the tree height of the motor vehicle within two minutes. "Then he bent to 45 °, got up, made a U-turn at 90 °, changes color (from white to yellow, then to blue, then to green) and accelerated fall" (42). And in this case, a set of bright luminescence accompanies the acceleration of the movement. Changing the state under the scheme 4-2-1 -?, Apparently corresponds to a gradual loss of power as the transition to a UFO cruising flight.
Charter to pursue a luminous object over 170 kilometers, the observer stopped the car and looked at the UFO. "Color UFO changed sequentially from orange to red, blue and green. He hesitated, went down from a height of 100 meters to a height of 30 meters, then suddenly went up" (43) In this case, we obviously have state transition diagram for 3 — 2-1 -? possibly associated with the braking speed. However, the transition from glow blue to green puzzling. Lighted object in the sky moving up and down, and it changed the color "white to greenish-blue" (44). And here it is not clear description of observation: repeated these changes colors and whether they were in sync with changes in the level or the color slowly changed throughout the observation.
Our interpretation apparently would sense changes Scheme 3-1-3 …
Four guys watched the UFO conical decreases a serpentine path. "The bottom surface of the object was blue, and the top changed its color from red to orange and white" (45). The last transition to the states 2-3, apparently, is connected with the growth of the power needed for braking.
Each case of successive color changes associated with the acceleration of the UFO movement and the proposed model of energy states. No matter how tough our ideas, they seem more or less intelligently illuminate this complex aspect of UFOs. Our proposed correlation is critically important because HelpOnInstalling definite relationship between the operation of the propulsion system of UFOs and the excitation of atmospheric gases, emits light. Of course, this area needs a lot of extra work, a thorough analysis of the well-documented observations and theoretical part — spectroscopist.
Although we have not pointed to any specific carrier green glow, a possible candidate for this role is a neon with its spectral line in the wake of 5401 A. The logical difficulty is related to the candidacy of neon, is that it requires relatively high energy to excite , it is sufficient, and in order to make it glow orange-red line. The latter should even outshine the green.
Obviously, we can offer only a partial solution to the problem. Similar uncertainty holds for the often noticed a bluish-green color, for which there are two possible sources. Argon laser emits bluish green light at wavelengths of 4579-5145 A medium blue green to nearly the middle, but on the spectral lines of argon in this wavelength range is nothing in the literature (46).
Yet as argon in air are many mentioned above explains the transitions appear, involving exactly argon.
Maybe there intervenes blue-green line of hydrogen in the wake of 4861 A, with its low energy threshold of excitability. However, free hydrogen in the atmosphere is very small, less than one-millionth. On the other hand, each molecule of water vapor in the atmosphere containing hydrogen atoms provides sufficient vodorodosnabzhenie.
The concentration of hydrogen in atmsofere maximal foggy, rainy days, when the relative humidity rises to 100% and the air filled water droplets. If confirmed that the blue-green glow in those days, more pronounced than in dry weather, then we definitely would indicate it is on hydrogen as the cause of this light. These attempts have not yet done. On the other hand, UFO are often hidden in the clouds, the moisture content which is significantly higher than that of air. This indicates that certain features of the study of this question.
According to observers, clouds, when they include a UFO light up and glow color is called "fancy" (47). At least once reported that a green light emission (48). Contrary to any messages. Thus, hydrogen is likely to contribute to the color data of UFO, but it is possible also part of argon.
6. Simultaneous iridescence UFO
Along with the fact that UFOs are illuminated with different colors in a certain sequence during maneuvering, they are sometimes painted in different colors at once, that is, simultaneously. In one case, the bottom side of the object remained blue and the color of the top part of me (49)
The horizontal colored stripes on the subject in the other case had a "blue, red and green color" (50).
All these messages very informative but probably indicate some action mechanism is very selective excitation of light emission, presumably, the noble gas atmosphere.
The horizontal arrangement of spectrum on an axially symmetric object may reflect the influence of the geometry of the object, altering or distorting electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of the object. It is possible that this explains the "six-story" a UFO, from the edges of which flowed all the colors of the rainbow "as water" (51).
The light features a UFO
Along with diffuse luminosity UFOs often report that they are normal "navigation" lights. A common feature of the UFO — clearly catching steady or flashing lights at the top, which can be of any color.
Sometimes surface UFO has other light sources. At the sites are typical elongated bow and stern lights, and on the disks — the lights in the periphery and at the bottom. These lamps are very different in number and color, and in some cases, as though no particular significance. Usually report having two or more lights. One object had something like 30 lights. Reported almost all colors of light. Most often, the red, blue, white, yellow, orange and green. The intensity of some of the lights can be fixed, while others are at this time of flicker or flash. View of the UFO is sometimes compared with a View "Christmas tree".
Less often mentioned about another type of illumination UFO. This is not the surface of light, and one or a large number of high-power beams, reminiscent of the searchlights. They are used in the inspection area, or send them straight up or down, or at home, or on vehicles.
In one case, the object on the ground, seemed to signal another, at high altitude, on and off the vertical beam and the object of this upper replied in the same vein (52). Often report red, white, blue and green colors of light.
And finally, about a dozen witnesses reported seeing a "window", "hatch", "holes" or "door" through which shone a bright light, often yellow-orange hue. Through the transparent dome at the top of the disc-shaped object observers could see how individual light sources, as well as general lighting interior UFO.
1. Vallee, Jacques, Passport to Magonia, "Appendix A, Century of UFO Landings, 1868 to 1968," Regnery, 1969. Individual cases of this directory will be referred to hereinafter only by number (eg, "Case 438").
2. Lorenzen, Coral E., Flying Saucers, The Startling Evidence of The Invasion From Outer Space, Chapter 9, Signet, 1966.
3. Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 97, Dutton, 1969.
4. Saunders, David R., and Harkins, R. Roger, UFOs? YES! Where The Condon Committee Went Wrong, p.170, Signet, 1968.
5. Peaslee, DC and Mueller, H., Elements of Atomic Physics, Prentice Hall, 1955.
6. Case 486.
7. Case 848.
8. Harnwell, Gaylord P., Principles of Electricity and Electromagnetism, Second Edition, p.85, McGraw-Hill, 1949.
9. Herzberg, Gerhard, Atomic Spectra and Atomic Structure, Dover, 1944.
10. Case 341.
11. Case 349.
12. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 1971.
13. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Company, 1969.
14. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Company, 1971.
15. Besancon, Robert M., Editor, The Encyclopedia of Physics, p. 743, Reinhold, 1966.
16. Lengyel, Bela A., Lasers, Wiley-Interscience, 1971.
17. Bennet, WR, et al, "Dissociation Excitation Transfers and Optical Maser Oscillations in Ne-Ox and Ar-Ox It Discharges," Phys. Rev. Letters, 8, 470-473, 1962.
18. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Company, p. 1,631, 1937.
19. Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Vol.7, p.574, McGraw-Hill, 1971.
20. Uman, Martin A., Lightning, "Appendix C, Ball Lightning," p.243, McGraw-Hill, 1969.
21. Cases 560, 601, 613, 733, 737, and probably 776.
22. Klass, Phillip J., UFOs Identified, Random House, 1968.
23. Singer, Stanley, The Nature of Ball Lightning, "Plenum, 1971.
24. Neville, Roy 0., Et al, "Microwaves," Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Supplement Volume, 2nd Edition, pp 563-589, Wiley, 1971.
25. Goerz, DJ, Industrial Microwaves Today, Bechtel.
26. Baddour, RF, and Timmins, RS, eds., The Application of Plasmas to Chemical Processing, MIT, 1967.
27. Klass, Phillip J., UFOs Identified, p. 151, Random House, 1968.
28. Lorenzen, Coral E., Flying Saucers, The Startling Evidence of The Invasion From Outer Space, p.148, Signet, 1966.
29. Case 584.
30. Also see descriptions in Cases 282, 309, 310, 316, 322, 339 and 366.
31. Edwards, Frank, Flying Saucers-Serious Business, Photograph section, Bantam, 1966.
32. Latimer, Wendell M. and Hildebrand, Joel H., Reference Book of Inorganic Chemistry, Revised Edition, p. 181, Macmillan, 1940.
33. Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol.20, p.822, 1965.
34. Uman, Martin A., Lightning, p.245, McGraw-Hill, 1969.
35. Grey, DC and Jensen, ML, "Bacteriogenic Sulphur in Air Pollution", Science, Vol. 177, p.1099, September 22, 1972.
36. Cases 74 and 199.
37. Neville, Roy 0., Et al, 'Microwaves, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Supplement Volume, 2nd Edition, pp 563-589, Wiley, 1971.
38. Michel, Aime, The Truth About Flying Saucers, p. 143, Pyramid, 1967. The relationship between the change in the color and energy of UFOs were briefly noted even earlier, see Keyhoe, Donald E., Flying Saucers From Outer Space, p. 52, Holt, 1953.
39. Case 670.
40. Case 692, quoted from the original source.
41. Case 741.
42. Case 772.
43. Case 682.
44. Case 821.
45. Case 826.
46. Manufactured by Energy Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, California, according to Leinwoll, Stanley, Understanding Lasers and Masers, Rider, 1965.
47. Cases 675 and 575.
48. Case 684.
49. Case 836.
50. Case 796.
51. Case 789.
52. Case 619.
CHAPTER IV. UFO sounds and noises
Hovering still, or slipping at the height of the trees, or making cruising in the sky, UFOs are silent. Surprised by UFO observers often report that they were close and could easily hear the noise. If these objects behave like ordinary aircraft, they were ready to hear the noise of running engines, exhaust jets or propellers that defines a particular way of flying. The lack of noise from the UFO clearly shows that their traction systems are unique and unusual. Even at supersonic speeds at which any aircraft creates a sound wave, UFOs remain silent. The physical basis of this unusual characteristics of UFOs will be described in the next chapter. And yet, although the UFO and silent, it is known that they still emit some sounds and noises.
In 103 cases of close encounters with UFOs over the decade (1958-1968 g) meeting participants heard the noise from the UFO and attempted to describe (1). As described sounds and noises are generally very difficult, so far is not surprising that observers UFOs use for this purpose a very wide range of different expressions. Imagine the noise of coins falling into a cup of coffee. What a lot of adjectives and comparisons have used to describe people who heard this noise from the adjoining rooms? Imagine further that you hear at the same time a number of different sounds or noises, for example, slam the car and the noise of the rotation of the top. Several people were asked to describe their experience, using a striking set of words. To understand what they are trying to communicate we must first distinguish expressions that describe each of the components of this noise. Then from these different expressions, you will be able to work out some of the sources described by their noise.
Some of the adjectives used by witnesses, such as "stupid" and "strange" almost meaningless, but nonetheless may be associated with several sounds that have very specific and distinct characteristics.
In the table below we are trying to distribute nearly all of the expressions used in the messages in five categories of sounds and noises that the witnesses were trying to describe.
It is interesting to note, for example, that in the descriptions made by three different witnesses, used a combination of terms related to these categories.
For example, comparing heard the noise with noise vacuum cleaner, they tried to talk about the combination of jet noise and air turbine high-pitched whine. Such combinations on the table reflects the braces.
Low sounds loud sounds gusts of air high sound signals
Gusts of wind blows Buzz Buzz Type
A loud explosion Buzz Hiss High tone-Modules
low tone Rowan
The roar of the low-noise hum of wings Buzz
Who rumbling tone high
The roar of buzz Flutter noise high-noise in
roaring back to hozhy
The shock wave noise swarm of bees scrape Strange
A loud explosion Buzzing bees creaking type
The roar of noise generator noise
Built-in noise Howl
vibration guide whistle
The noise of freight
| _______________________ | | _________________________ |
The noise of the vacuum cleaner noise transformer
| ______________________________________________________________________ |
Noises, roaring, strikes
The reports clearly discernible mention of the two types of loud noises: an instantaneous explosive noise (like a shock wave) and prolonged loud noise. Such noise could be heard when "it hit the ground," "after the lift" with a small initial height "for 30 seconds before the flight" and "UFO flying away with a roar and a number of strikes." It looks like the one that this noise directly associated with the use of a UFO power for rapid acceleration or deceleration, but these modes of operation should not be associated with the regimes usually silent landing and take-off silent.
Large UFO was flying slowly at a distance of about 700 meters from the observer at a speed of 80 km / h, ie, at subsonic speeds. Three seconds after the emission of a strong deep they light the observer heard "the noise of a shock wave" (2). If the appearance of blue light caused a wave of compression, it would extend a rate of about 340 meters per second, and would reach the observer after about two seconds. Such a coincidence of time intervals lends weight to the connection between the appearance of blue light and the shock wave. The technical meaning of this connection will be discussed below in the analysis of our thrust characteristics of UFOs.
The second category of noise UFO — buzzing noise covers low intensity that should not be heard wa large distances. The mention of the noise is important in this case because it provides a basis for estimating the frequency or tone of the sound. Buzz flying bees called her wings, which fluctuate with a frequency of about 270 Hz (3). Significantly lower noise, also attributable to a humming, are, for example, hummingbirds, particular one of their kind, which is known ruby color neck, the frequency of oscillation of the wings of the birds about 70 females and 50 — the smaller size of males (4).
They definitely meet the noise at frequencies of 60-120 Hz, manufactured electric cars, which are referred to by some observers. Perhaps, we should not look for any other sources of noise if the electric car is so well played that role.
When you consider that the interior of the UFO was bright, bearing in mind their numerous "navigation" lights and sometimes emitted a bright light, it is obvious that UFOs are in need of electrical energy. If you believe in the word of one witness, the UFO made a noise like a "generator".
In our discussion we use the assumption that the witnesses heard the whirring noise of a UFO in the normal way, ie, that the pressure of sound waves have an effect on the eardrum, and this effect is rendered to the inner ear to the auditory nerve. Of course, should be considered, and any other features.
We have previously suggested that the UFO emit radio frequency electromagnetic energy, which has no effect on the eardrum. However, medical experiments indicate that some people can hear a transmission modulated on a radio frequency. Such feelings are interpreted as "buzzing, humming or tapping." They feel that the sound comes from somewhere "behind" the head, regardless of its position and orientation (5).
Obviously, the energy pulses that cause these feelings, "bypass" the ear and directly affect the auditory nerve.
The physical reality of the impact of the introduction of microelectrodes was demonstrated in the nerve fiber is followed by radiation in the microwave frequency range from 200 to 3000 megahertz. In these circumstances, unable to detect the measurements of electrical potentials a few millivolts and 0.1 volts generated between the inside and outside surface of the nerve membrane (6). Since these experiments were carried out with the modulated microwave, then obviously it study participants felt pulses, and the carrier frequency. On locator PPS-16 in Jodrell Bank in England, a low pulse repetition frequency of the order of 160 Hz (7). Frequency of 300 Hz are used quite frequently (8).
Thus, it is possible that the sense of a UFO buzzing noise, possibly stimulated directly in the head of the observer high-frequency radiation emitted sound pulses with a low repetition rate. Apparently, it is possible to develop a system of modulation microwave voice that will communicate with a completely deaf people whose auditory nerve remained intact. If such a system was feasible and safe, it would be possible to transmit voice with microwave radiation a person, do not use the radio. As will be shown later, this kind of communication system and in fact represents a part of the UFO phenomenon.
And now for the third category of UFO noises, something reminiscent of the noise from the gusts of air. This noise is well identified, but no indication of the source is not available. At the current level of research can only guess there is not this noise excitation of molecules at the expense of ionization in the "skin effect" on the surfaces of UFOs. At night, under the supervision of a corona discharge at high voltage transmission lines, you can see the glow becomes audible "hissing" noise (9). Noise type gusts of air in general, perhaps, explains the phenomena of electrical discharge.
Noises high tones
It would be interesting and valuable to have at least approximately the frequency range noise UFO attributable to the category of high tone. At first glance, the comparison of noise UFO with "noise truck on the asphalt" can do little to help us, but nevertheless it is a useful starting position to assess the technical sense of the message.
Observers, of course, mean the noise produced by a notch tire wheel when driving on the road. Let the characteristic size of the elements is a half-inch incisions, the average diameter of the wheel is three feet, and the speed of the car on the way to, say, 40 miles per hour. Under these conditions, the elements of notches tires will strike the road about 1400 times per second. There is a moderately high-pitched noise.
In the evaluation of the frequency range of the noise, we can certainly make a mistake in the 2-3 largest frequency in any direction. Many expressions in messages, such as "shrill," "piercing whistling", "howling" resemble the concerns of the noise of jet aircraft engines when it comes to force, or when taxiing for takeoff.
The impression is further reinforced by explicit comparisons with the "loud operating turbine" or simply "the turbojet engine." In using these expressions, the witness clearly has in mind the high frequency noise of engines rather than the roar of jet exhaust.
Aggressive noise of jet engines is mainly generated from a high-speed compressor stage. It consists of a wide-band noise and a few discrete frequencies associated with turnover of some elements of the turbojet engine. The main source of the latter is the interaction of guide blades and rotor of the first stage, creating a noise similar to the noise of the siren. The fundamental frequency of the noise may be defined as the product of the number of rotor blades and its speed. When the blades 30 on the disk and 10,000 rpm fundamental frequency of about 5000 Hz. Will be generated as harmonics with frequencies up to 12,000 hertz. So that high-pitched schum TRD may represent the sums of several discrete frequencies in the range of 5 to 12,000 Hz, and broadband background (10). High tone of discrete frequencies is really very high and can be accurately described by the words "howl" or "whoosh". For example, we sometimes hear the amplitude modulation of the radio frequency at about 10 kHz. One observer compared the noise from the UFO with the noise "a high-speed drill." Most of these drills is driven by electric motors with 25,000 rpm (11), i.e. with 420 revolutions per second.
Impeller to cool the motor windings are usually 15 blades for small drills. Then the fundamental frequency of the order of 6300 Hz, which is generally linked to the above data.
From these data suggest that UFO emit noise in the high frequency range from 1000 to 10,000 hertz may consist of several discrete frequency noise. Much indicates that these are caused schumy rotating rotors having in its structure ventilating device. The absence of other indications suggests that the UFO propulsion system, possibly using a rotating machine sources of energy, but of course this is no ordinary turbojets.
It should be noted that the high tones sound actively absorbed and attenuated atmosphere, and the bass sounds is substantially no effect. The atmospheric absorption of sound at a frequency 8000 Hz characterized 5-10 dB at a distance of 100 meters, depending on the temperature and humidity of air (12). This selectivity absorption frequencies can be explained by the fact that the noise component vysokachastotny UFO discernible only at short distances.
Among the 447 reports of UFO encounters with neighbors that we analyze, there are seven posts that say about the strange sounds signalopsdobnyh. Most often they are referred to as signals such as "beep-beep" (3 posts out of seven).
Sometimes referred to and the simultaneous radio interference, although there is no evidence to the assumption that these strange sounds came over the air. Moreover, we can say that the radio has nothing to do with it. Ten year old boy noticed a bright silver object on the four-legged support in wheat field. Sounds like "beep-beep" he had heard up to that moment when the object appeared from his seat and went up. No radio is not mentioned in the report, and it is unlikely that this kid was some in the receiver. Another similar incident took place on the beach, when the observer heard "modulated whistles" while lifting an object to a height of about 20 meters.
In the famous case of the spouses Hill (13) sounds like "beep-beep" played an unusually important role. While driving through the highway in sht.Nyu Hampshire Hilla saw a large UFO approached with great distance and hovering at low altitude over the field. Overcome by curiosity Hill stopped the car and headed toward the UFO. Approached by a UFO, Hill considered the people in it. Gripped by fear, Hill rushed to the car and tried to leave. UFO chased the car Hilly some time, during which Hilla excitedly discussed the predicament in which they were experiencing a feeling that the people of UFOs try to steal them. "There was a strange electrical noise such as" beep-beep. "It seemed that the car vibrates at a frequency of the sound. Rhythm signal was somehow irregular" beep, beep-beep, beep, beep … The sounds seemed to go from behind, from the trunk "(14).
The sound was coming from behind, not from the radio. When asked if there was a radio, Hill said no. It was too late. Transmission was gone. In general, it does not include the radio while driving a car (15).
His first series of signals plunged Hill in a strange state of drowsiness. Later, a second series of signals returned to their normal state. They do not know what happened to them between the series.
After a long time of Hilla, during sessions giponoza managed to remember what happened to them. They were captured by UFO occupants were taken aboard the giant machine and subjected to biomedical experiments for two hours. The first series of signals subordinated to the will of Hill's UFO people. They were released after a suggestion to forget all that happened to them, and then woken up the second series of signals.
In another case, the onset of amnesia was caused by signals such as "beep-BP (16). Police officer in the piece. Nebraska approached the UFO on the highway at 14 meters and heard the sharp sound of this type. Instead of 10 minutes of time, which, in his opinion, he needed to return to the police station, in fact, half an hour passed. Under hypnosis at the University of pieces. Colorado, he remembered the events of the lost 20 minutes. Very small growth being directed to him from the UFO. dwarf told him that he came to Earth from space (17).
You can, of course, assume that the police officer used his radio during a meeting with UFOs. However, the similarity of his experience with the experience of Hilla gives grounds for "suspicion" that the radio was not involved in the transmission of signals.
We think that sounds like "beep-beep" near the UFO do not need and probably do not "use" of radio frequencies and what they are used to bring the UFO people into a state of hypnotic trance in which humans sometimes fall under the full control of the UFO pilots. Mechanism for transmitting these signals appear is the corresponding encoding and use the carrier in the microwave range of frequencies. These are the results of laboratory experiments on humans and their correlation with the experience Hill. The possible use of this mechanism is associated with significant complications and, apparently, is not limited to the transfer of "raw" signals of the "beep-beep".
1. Vallee, Jacques, Passport to Magonia, Regenery, 1969.
2. Case 677.
3. Shaw, Frank R., and Whitehead, Stanley B., Honey Bees and Their Management. Van Nostrand, 1951.
4. Terres, John K., Flashing Wings. The Drama of Bird Flight, p.63, Doubleday, 1968.
5. Digest of the 1961 international Conference on Medical Electronics, New York, IRE.
6. Copson, David A., "Microwave Heating, In Freeze-Drying, Electronic Ovens, and Other Applications," Chapter 19, Radiation Biology of Microwaves, The AVI Publishing Company, 1962.
7. Taylor, Denise, introduction to Radar and Radar Techniques, Philosophical Library, 1966.
8. Encyclopedia Americana, Vol.23, p.115a, 1971.
9. Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol.8, p.215, 1965.
10. Richter, et al, Noise Reduction of Turbojet Engines. SNECMA, French manufacturer of jet engines, bi-lingual text.
11. Personal communication, Black & Decker Manufacturing Company, 1139 Airport Boulevard, South San Francisco, California.
12. Richter, et al, Noise Reduction of Turbojet Engines, SNECMA.
13. Case 524.
14. Fuller, John G., The Interrupted Journey, p.33. Dell, 1966.
15. Fuller, John G., The Interrupted Journey. p. 159, Dell, 1966.
16. Case 902.
17. Condon, Edward U. Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, Case 42, Dutton, 1969. Much more detail on this case is contained in Art.: Norton, Roy, "World's Most Incredible UFO Contact Case", Saga, p. 23ff, April 1970.
(To be continued)
McCampbell J. UFOlogy. New Insights from Science and Common Sense. 1973. Translation IM Sheydina.
Russian UFO Digest April 2004 — N 5 (0073)