In the Hollywood film The Day after Tomorrow, which premiered last week in the way of the warm Gulf Stream stand concealing the polar ice caps. As a result, Europe and the United States is entering a new ice age. This disaster film is an illustration of what the risks to humanity, is released into the atmosphere of the products of combustion. But the consequences of climate change are visible and outside the theater.
In April of this year, the California wildfires raged. The air temperature in the state was fifteen degrees above normal. Dutch polar explorer said in early May that the North Pole was only minus five degrees, while usually there is minus twenty. The unusual weather has become routine. In Europe, wonder what will bring the upcoming summer: torrential rains and overflowing rivers, as in 2002, or the heat of a prolonged drought in 2003. Frequent extreme weather conditions show how to limit greenhouse gas emissions.
The first step in this direction should be the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol — an international treaty aimed at combating climate change. In exchange for the support of Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), the European Union has recently made by President Putin that he will forward the issue of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol to the State Duma. If the Russian parliament to ratify the protocol, countries participating in this contract will be enough for it to enter into force.
The current arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol apply only to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by industrialized countries. They can not completely prevent the further growth of greenhouse gas emissions on a global scale, if only because that economic growth takes place in developing countries. A further increase in greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries is inevitable if we are to achieve a more equitable distribution of natural resources. However, large developing countries such as China, India and Brazil have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. Thus, they have pledged to take part in the negotiations on the limitation of emissions of greenhouse gases during the second phase of the Kyoto Protocol, which will come in 2010. However, the developing countries will fulfill their obligations only if the industrialized countries to take the first steps.
Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Russia to increase pressure on the U.S. to ensure that Americans have returned to the negotiating table. The presidential candidate of the Democratic Party, John Kerry is ready. President Bush on environmental issues is increasingly becoming a pariah in the eyes of the international community.
By 2050, the amount of wealth in the world will increase three-fold. At the same time experts on climate change warns us that by the year of greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced by sixty percent, if we want the world could live with. It seems like an impossible task, but the cost of this well represented. It is about 0.01 — 0.02 per cent of gross national product of all countries combined. To combat climate change requires not a great sacrifice, and political will.
In order to reduce the sixty percent of greenhouse gas emissions and stabilize the climate on a global scale is necessary to take the following measures:
1. Wind energy. It is necessary to ensure that in forty years the amount of electricity generated by wind power was seventy times more than now. This means an annual increase of twelve percent. In Europe at present annual growth rate of thirty-five percent. These growth rates are also real to Turkey or India.
2. Solar energy. Current power plants for electricity generation using solar radiation to be increased at least 1500 times. This requires an annual growth rate of twenty percent for more than forty years. This requires additional subsidies.
3. Bio-fuels. To reduce dependence on the (Arab) oil, we need to create a large area for growing biological fuels. This is — a serious challenge, but at the same time — new perspectives for European farmers.
4. More environmentally friendly cars. Two billion vehicles, which in 2050 will go on Earth, must emit half the exhaust gases than all the cars thrown together today. That is, on one liter of petrol they will pass 24 kilometers. Another possibility is that the one billion vehicles will be equipped with engines running on hydrogen produced using solar or wind energy.
5. Increased efficiency of electric and electronic devices. Using electric devices and equipment should be ten times more efficient than it is now. Economy lamp consumes five times less electricity than a standard bulb. This concept is quite extend to all around us, electric apparatus and instruments.
6. Stopping the use of coal. Around the world are using coal power plants should be transferred to the application cause less harm to the environment of natural gas. Adopted in EU law enables European businesses prescribed reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases to implement outside of Europe by investing in such projects on the transition to the use of more environmentally friendly fuels.
7. Injection into a special underground reservoirs of carbon dioxide — the most important factor of the greenhouse effect. This — not very good, but needed a way to contribute to the solution of the problem. Carbon dioxide gas discharged from the pipes of large power plants, and can be pumped into the waste container underground natural gas.
Support for Putin, the Kyoto Protocol is the success of European diplomacy regarding climate change. But the European Union should not rest on our laurels. The EU should set a good example by putting ourselves ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and helping developing countries with investments to ensure their reliable and efficient supply of energy. Time is short, because the climate is getting worse.
Alexander de Roo — Deputy Chairman of the Environment Committee of the European Parliament (fraction "Green Left"), a member of the Dutch Party "Green Left".
News.Battery.Ru — Accumulator News, 08:43 02.06.2004