Measurements showed that the cavity of the famous Yellowstone supervolcano bigger than previously thought. Geophysics, University of Utah conducted the first large-scale mapping of the electrical conductivity of the gigantic underground navel hot and partly molten rock that feeds the Yellowstone supervolcano famous.
Supervolcanoes considered the largest, most destructive threat to the Earth. Fortunately for us, they rarely erupt, hundreds of thousands of years accumulating in their vast reservoirs of molten magma, then to arrange the planet Apocalypse, is a thousand times superior to the usual effects of the eruption. Supervolcanoes on Earth a few, the most famous is at a depth of 80 km beneath Yellowstone Park.
Known for his the fact that, according to calculations, he should wake up about once every 600,000 years, while since the last eruption was 642,000 years already. The electronic version of a possible eruption of Yellowstone supervolcano like a horror movie.
Molten magma, rising to 50 km up, destroy all life within a thousand kilometers of magma would be enough to fill all of North America 15-cm layer of ash. In addition on the planet come nuclear winter, which could even trigger a new ice age. Today supervolcano impersonating only geysers and hot springs.
Seismic measurements of 2009 showed that the cavity, feeding magma reservoir Yellowstone supervolcano, is located to the surface at an angle of 60 degrees and extends for 240 km at a depth of 80 to 650 km. Conductivity measurements have shown that it is much longer — about 640 km. The depth of its occurrence in this way could not be measured because the radio waves, even those extra-long, which were used during scanning, do not penetrate into the ground on 300 km.
The difference in results is because the scientists measured different things — seysmoizmereniya record the movement of magma, and conductivity measurement spoke on the motion of salt solutions, which in these parts for the electrical conductivity comparable to sea water. Measurements were taken with 115 stations that send radio signals frequency of 0.0001 to 0.0664 hertz, and the results are then treated with 18 hours of supercomputer. Predictions of when the supervolcano eruption could occur on the basis of these data has been received, according to CNews.
Under Yellowstone Park Private pool with hot magma
Giant volcanic plume or pool hot magma that feeds dormant supervolcano in Yellowstone National Park, was estimated to command Professor Robert Smith (Robert B. Smith) University of Utah (Salt Lake City, USA), much more than previously thought.
Yellowstone caldera (a huge crater) was formed as a result of multiple supervolcano eruptions. For 17 million years, there have been over a hundred eruptions, and the last happened 640,000 years ago. Fortunately, this volcano is dormant. Yellowstone caldera sizes are huge — they are 55 to 75 kilometers. This territory is Yellowstone National Park.
Recently, scientists have shown that the Yellowstone supervolcano is located on the "hot spot" — the plume, or leaving the hot magma to the surface of the Earth. In previous studies of this plume, conducted in 2009, the group of Professor Smith by seismic measurements showed that it occurs at an angle of 60 degrees, and its length is 240 km. Smith is a professor decided to measure the electrical conductivity of the plume. As a result, he got the following results: the plume is at a depth of 660 km at an angle of 40 degrees in the direction from east to west, and its length reaches 640 km. These data will be published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.
"We have shown that the size of the plume is greater than previously thought. And there is a large amount of a substance in a liquid state. These data could not be obtained by means of seismic measurements, "- says Smith.
Recently, scientists have another proof of the hypothesis of the existence of mantle plumes — they showed that the plume formed over Hawaii. But U.S. scientists have calculated that the plumes associated with the work of outcrops of rocks containing diamonds.