5. Retesting RDS-1
The Government Commission for the testing of the RDS-1 under the chairmanship M.G.Pervuhina began work July 27, 1949. August 5 Commission has concluded the full commitment of the landfill and asked for 15 days to conduct a detailed refinement of assembly operations and the undermining of the product. Telling the test — the last of August.
The supervisor of the test was appointed Kurchatov, MO preparation of the landfill to the tests led Major General V.A.Bolyatko, scientific management exercised M.A.Sadovsky ground.
In the period from 10 to 26 August, there have been 10 rehearsals management and field test equipment to undermine the charge, as well as three training exercises with the launch of all the equipment and 4 undermine full-scale explosive with an aluminum sphere of automation of detonation.
Training exercises confirmed the good quality of the assembly charge, reliability and automation systems undermine explosive line, the willingness of all services and personnel to conduct full-scale tests.
After the general training experience management system was transferred K.I.Schelkinu in charge of it was in before the nuclear test.
August 21 by special train to the landfill were taken charge of plutonium and four neutron fuse, one of which was to be used in blasting fighting products.
Scientific supervisor experience Kurchatov, in accordance with the instructions Beria, ordered the trial RDS-1 August 29 at 8:00 am local time.
On the night of 29 August 1949 was carried out final assembly of the charge.
The assembly of the central part of the installation details of plutonium and spent fuse neutron group of N.L.Duhova, N.A.Terletskogo, D.A.Fishmana and V.A.Davidenko (installation of "NC"). When assembling an unpleasant episode (according to D.A.Fishmana)
"When you move the details of plutonium garbage dropped it on a metal object and took Nick. This caused shock among collectors and supervising the assembly! Oversees the assembly deputy general Beria A.P.Zavenyagin asked sternly Yu.B. Khariton (responsible for preparation charge to explode): "Let this defect?". Chariton, having carefully considered the defect, he replied: "Let's." "Then write down and sign" — demanding A.P.Zavenyagin said.
This turn changed the situation. After the product has been tested for the first time, and it could be many possible reasons for a failed test, and in this case, the only fixed deviation could cause serious trouble. The remedy proposed Zel'dovich. He said that he could theoretically show the irrelevance of the defect. He sat down and wrote that, based on worst-case assumptions, this defect can affect the charging capacity by an amount described by the following formulas.
He wrote a couple of simple formulas, apparently, just composed, framed digital values and then calculate the amount received is not more than 0.01%. Then wrote that, since the accuracy of power measurement is interest, the amount of 0.01% will not affect the overall evaluation.
Gen. granted this certificate and the assembly was continued. "
The final assembly of the charge was completed by 3 am on August 29 under the guidance of A.Ya.Malskogo and V.I.Alferova. The members of the special committee Beria, M.G.Pervuhin V.A.Mahnev and controlled the final operations.
On the day of testing at the command center polygon ("12E"), located 10 km from the center of the field trial, has gathered most of the senior management of the test: Beria, M.G.Pervuhin, Kurchatov, YB Chariton, K.I.Schelkin, employees of KB-11 that participated in the final installation charge on the tower.
By 6 am, the charge raised on the test tower was completed by his outfit fuses and connection to the subversive scheme.
Because of the bad weather with a shift by one hour earlier (7:00 instead of 8:00 on the plan) have been held all of the work provided for in the approved regulations. At 6 hours and 35 minutes operators turn the power automation system, and at 6 o'clock 48 minutes was included automatic test field.
At exactly 7:00 am August 29, 1949 the whole area was lit up with dazzling light, which marked that the Soviet Union has successfully completed the development and testing of the first atomic bomb.
According to the memoirs of trial participants D.A.Fishmana, events unfolded in the room KP follows:
"In the last seconds before the explosion were open doors located on the back side of the building manual (from the field), so that the explosion could have been observed by a surge coverage area. At the moment of" zero "all saw a very bright light the earth and clouds. The brightness of the sun exceeds by several times. was clear that the explosion was a success!
All ran out of the room and ran up on the parapet enclosing the gearbox from the direct effects of the explosion. Before them opened a charming picture-scale formation of a huge cloud of dust and smoke in the center of which was blazing flames!
But here's the loudspeaker sounded Malskyy words: "Everyone immediately enter the building KP! Approaching shock wave" (according to the calculations, it is to the CP was to come after 30 seconds).
Upon entering the room, Beria all congratulated the successful test, and the Kurchatov Yu.B. Khariton and kissed. But inside, apparently, he still remained some doubt as to the completeness of the explosion, as he did not immediately call and report to Stalin on the successful test, and went to the second observation point, where there was a nuclear physicist MG Meshcheryakov, which in 1946 was present at the demonstration tests of atomic weapons the United States at Bikini Atoll.
In the second observation point Beria also congratulated MGMescheryakov, Zeldovich, N.L.Duhova and other comrades. After that, he meticulously Meshcheriakova asked about the external effect of the American bombings. Mescheryakov assured that our explosion of foreign film surpasses the U.S..
After receiving confirmation of the witness, Beria went on shore to the headquarters of the landfill in order to tell Stalin about the successful test. "
Stalin learned of the successful test, immediately called B.L.Vannikovu (who stayed at home due to illness and could not attend the trial) and congratulated him on the successful test.
According to the memoirs of Boris L. He, in response to the congratulations began to say that it is the merit of the party and the government … Then Stalin interrupted him, saying: "Come on, mate Vannikov these formalities. You better think like us in a very short time to start the manufacture of these products."
20 minutes after the explosion to the center of the field were sent two tanks equipped with a lead shield to conduct radiation survey and inspection of the center of the field.
Intelligence found that all the buildings in the center of the field demolished. At the site of the tower crater, the soil in the center of the field melted and formed a solid crust of slag. Civil buildings and industrial buildings were completely or partially destroyed. Witnesses presented a terrible picture of the great slaughter.
Equipment used in the experiment allowed to optical observation and measurement of heat flow parameters of the shock wave characteristics of neutron and gamma radiation, to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in the area of the explosion and along the trace of the explosion clouds, to examine the impact of the damaging effects of nuclear explosions on biological objects.
The energy of the first Soviet atomic bomb was 22 kilotons of TNT.