For years, Mars is haunted by science fiction writers, scholars and simple inhabitants of our planet. Weight movies, stories devoted to him, but he remains as enigmatic. Let's shed a little more light on the "red planet". I offer you to get acquainted with the 7 biggest mysteries of Mars.
I bring to your attention a video that will be considered the most fascinating objects on the surface of Mars:
Why Mars has two "faces"?
Scientists for decades have been puzzled by the difference between the two sides of Mars. The northern hemisphere of the planet — a smooth and low — this is one of the most smooth and level surface on planets of the solar system. Potentially, it could be formed because of the water that once splashed on the Martian surface.
At the same time the southern half of Mars — rough and cut up all the craters. It is approximately 8.4 kilometers higher than the northern part. Recent studies suggest that such differences between the southern and northern sides of the planet could be connected with a giant cosmic body that could once a very long time to fall to the surface of Mars.
What is the source of methane on Mars?
Methane — the simplest organic molecule — was first discovered in the atmosphere of Mars spacecraft "Mars Express" of the European Space Agency in 2003. On Earth, most of the methane produced by living organisms, such as cattle digesting food. It is assumed that methane is stable in the Martian atmosphere, only 300 years old, but who or what might generate this gas so long ago — remains a mystery.
Yet there are ways of methane and without the participation of living organisms, for example, volcanic activity. The new program of the European Space Agency's "Ekzomars", which will be launched in 2016, the chemical composition of the atmosphere of Mars, scientists have been able to learn more about the Martian methane.
Is there liquid water on Mars?
Although a large body of evidence indicates that Mars once had liquid water, whether it exists today — remains a mystery. The atmospheric pressure on Mars is very low, about 100 times less than the pressure on Earth, so it is hardly liquid water may still exist on the surface of the Red Planet. However, the long dark lines that we can see on the surface of Mars, hinting at the fact that salt water streams can flow through them each spring.
Were the oceans on Mars?
A large number of Mars missions showed that Mars has many signs of what was once on the surface splashing water. It is very likely that there were oceans, the network of valleys, river deltas and minerals that can form water.
However, current models of early Martian climate can not explain how could exist on a planet such high temperatures to form liquid water, as the sun warms the surface of the planet is much weaker. Maybe some of the characteristics of the surface can be formed not by water, but by winds or other mechanisms? However shows that ancient Mars was still warm, and on its surface could be water, at least on one side thereof. However, some scientists argue that ancient Mars was cold but humid, although this theory still disputed.
Is there life on Mars?
The first spacecraft successfully landed on the surface of Mars — NASA's Viking 1 — first to try to solve the mystery of whether there is life on Mars, but so far the answer to this question is not received. Today, this issue is of concern Mars researchers around the world. Viking able to detect organic molecules, such as methyl chloride and dichloromethane. However, it later emerged that it was the earth impurities, which were part of the cleaning fluids in the preparation of the apparatus in the world.
The surface of Mars is quite suitable for the emergence of life on it, as far as we know, because there are appropriate conditions: suitable temperature, radiation, excessive dryness and other factors. We know a lot of examples where life appeared on Earth even in more severe conditions, such as in the far north, in dry soils Antarctic Dry Valleys and in very dry Atacama Desert in Chile.
Where there is liquid water on Earth — life is everywhere, so scientists believe that if there is water on Mars, there must certainly be a life. When scientists answer the question whether there is life on Mars, they will be able to shed light on a number of other questions that remain unanswered today, for example, may or may not be life originated elsewhere in the universe.
Life on Earth came from Mars?
Meteorites that have been found in Antarctica, came to our planet from Mars. They broke away from the red planet during its collision with other space objects. These meteorites have structures that resemble the structures created by terrestrial microbes. While many studies suggest that, most likely, these structures are obtained by chemical means, the debate in the scientific world continues. Some researchers believe that life on Earth has been brought to Mars a long time ago, and it can stand here just meteorites.
Can humans live on Mars?
To finally answer the question of whether or not there is life on Mars, people can fly there and find out.
Back in 1969, NASA had plans to organize in 1981 the mission of sending a man to Mars to establish a permanent Martian station by 1988. However, interplanetary travel involving human subjects were not such a simple task from both the scientific and the technical points of view.
For example, significant challenges were: to ensure the stock of food, water, oxygen, eliminating the harmful effects of microgravity and radiation, reducing to zero the probability of fires, and so on. But the most important thing — you need to psychologically adjust to the person that he spent many years will be far from the Earth and from a real help. It is also difficult to imagine how you can organize a touchdown, job, life on an alien planet and return from there back to Earth.
However, the astronauts have long been dreaming of such flights. For example, the volunteers agreed to live for a year on a spaceship. It was the longest space flight simulation, that was ever developed, the aim of which was to play in the Earth's environment is what can be the mission to Mars from beginning to end.
Volunteers willing to go to Mars — a great many. Maybe once a flight become a reality.
Watch Life on Mars