"Teach your children to what we have taught our: that the land — our mother. Everything that happens with the land happens to the sons and daughters of the earth. We know that. Earth does not belong to us. We belong to the earth … All things are connected — like the blood that unites a family … We do not weave the web of life, we simply woven into it. What would we do the web, we do to ourselves. "
Chief Seattle, 1854
21.08.11.Ekologicheskimi problems we can not be surprised. And do not even scare. We have long been accustomed to the total pollution, deforestation, acid rain … We put up with the use of "nitrate" vegetables, "chemical" sausage and "hormonal" meat … We perceive rather quietly fearful predictions about the effects of global climate change … triggered a defense mechanism of the human psychology in our century will suffice …
However, the problem encountered in the wild in recent years, may result in an unprecedented environmental disaster, compared to the drought, flooding, and the ozone hole will seem minor troubles. This is — the mass extinction of bees around the world, and especially in the most developed countries. The mysterious attack (scientists can not explain its origin) is so extensive as that caused another wave of apocalyptic spirit. Would not want to once again stir the dubious theme "coming end of the world", but today, many remember the prophecy Vanga: first in the world will disappear bees, and a few years to begin the terrible disasters.
All of infection — from America!
Even non biology people in general understand the vital role of bees in ensuring environmental wellbeing of our planet. This role is no less important in world agriculture. That's why experts are sounding the alarm louder. Their fear is based on a simple and obvious logic: no bees — will not pollinate plants, the plants will die — humanity will perish.
At the time, Albert Einstein said that if bees die out, then four years later, and people will die. Even if a brilliant scientist exaggerated (eg, rye, wheat and rice are pollinated by the wind), however, due to pollination by insects grow crops that provide a third of the total food supply in the world. However, about 90 percent of the pollination is done by bees — butterflies and other insects can not "handle" large areas.
Bees pollinate 115 crops, including fruit trees, citrus, onions, cabbage, broccoli, squash, beans, peppers, eggplant, cucumbers, tomatoes, fava beans, coffee, cocoa, avocado, coconut, etc. And because the production these crops is to be the fastest growing segments of the global food industry, like NEWSru.com. So, bee plague may aggravate existing food crisis.
Some online resources give the following information: Since 1961, the volume of agricultural production, which depends on the activity of the bees, increased four times, but at the same time, the number of bee colonies halved. The problem of mass extinction of bees came to a head in the United States in 2006, and in 2007, dozens of states have lost 30 to 70 percent of working women cruise! Americans gave the bee epidemic special name — Colony Collapse Disorder, or abbreviated si-si-di: "collapse of bee colonies."
Currently, those regions of the U.S., where "their" bees do not have enough, have to attract them from other parts of the country. In particular, the services of commercial beekeeping actively using CA — here every February brought a huge bee "landing." Otherwise California almond groves (and they give up to 80 percent of the global harvest of almonds) just left without pollination.
From the shores of America unexplained bee plague spread to Europe. Now this disaster covered England, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece and a number of Eastern European countries. These countries annually lose more than 30 percent of the bees in some regions losses reach 50? 80 percent! Since 2007, cases of bee plague recorded in Russia and Ukraine. And while we have this attack is far from the U.S. and European scale, there is no guarantee that we will do "little blood." The situation is considered so serious that it is the search for solution to the problem joined the developed countries, leading research centers, the UN, international environmental and agricultural organizations.
Mobile communication is not to blame?
Today, we consider several basic versions explaining the reasons for the extinction of bees.
Version one: it is the result of an unprecedented proliferation varroatosis — One of the most devastating diseases of bees. The disease is caused by a tiny mite Varroa destructor, which is parasitic on bees, sucking the hemolymph, and with it the proteins necessary for life, insects are unstable to infections and die. Varroa mite was described at the beginning of XX century, as a parasite of Indian bee Apis cerana indica, but at 60?'s Of the same century it had become a parasite and the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Contagion quickly spread throughout the world, and in the 80? XX century each apiary Eurasia could be considered a priori affected varroatosis.
The second version is indirectly related to the first. Adversely affect the bees used in agricultural pesticides, herbicides and insecticides. They do not kill the winged worker, but make them vulnerable to varroatosis. If the 15-18th years ago, one average swarm could survive even if it penetrated to 10,000 mites Varroa, but today for the complete disappearance of the swarm takes less than two thousand parasites. In addition, agricultural monocultures (eg, corn, sunflower and rapeseed) destroys the habitat of pollinating insects, especially as it is for the treatment of these cultures use the most powerful pesticides.
Version Three. The mass death of bees blame new, still poorly studied species of pathogenic bacteria and viruses that destroy the immune system of insects (In the immune defense of bees very negative impact and stress). Separate studies have shown that bees kill a virus that rebuilds their body so that it starts to produce the proteins needed virus, not bees. Further studies will determine which of the virus killed the bees, and how to stop its spread.
Version Four. Main culprit of the plague of bee — mobile communications. This is the conclusion reached by scientists from the University of Koblenz-Landau (Germany). They were for a long time been studying of spatial orientation of bees near power lines. New data have convinced researchers that the radiation of cell phones and two-way device orientation system violates the bee, she can not find her way back to the hive and die. Perhaps the density of the coating of large areas of the U.S. and European mobile network or power signals to honey insects exceeded a certain critical threshold, which leads to disorientation of bees in the area. For its part, the specialists of the Institute of Apiculture them. Prokopovich NAS do not agree with the findings of German researchers — Ukrainian scientists tend to "pesticide" version.
One cure, another cripple …
What do I think about this by beekeepers? Beekeeper agreed to comment on the situation with the 46? Years of service, the chairman of Reni District Beekeepers Society Viktor Ivanov.
— I am convinced that mobile is here to do with it, — said Victor. — At the same time it would be wrong to single out any one cause of mass death of bees. In fact, to consider a set of many factors. Among them, of course, the use of pesticides in agriculture in developed countries. Now the fields are sprayed with a new generation of powerful drugs. These chemicals destroy the immunity of bees, and "erase" their memory. As a result, the bees lose their bearings and, flying out of the hive, they can not find their way back home and die.
Negative factor is varroatosis. Rather, the methods of dealing with it. Today, these methods are, again, are the use of chemicals. Among them is a very effective bipin. Yes, it kills the varroa mite, but often kills with bees. Everyone knows how to build modern medicine: one treated and the other maimed. Similarly — and beekeeping. To combat varroatosis used drugs, which are placed in hives for a month. But "medicinal" substances accumulate on the walls of the hive on the combs and so on. Large bees more or less normally tolerate drug treatment against Varroa mites, but small families often do not maintain it.
Bees — delicate and sensitive creatures, they painfully react to unpleasant odors and other foreign influences from the outside. In the end, they just leave their hives. Autumn is gathering bees — a phenomenon in which the bee family uncontrollably leaves prepared for winter nest and ceases to exist.
Autumn Gathering and I watched at home. And just after the use of drugs against varroatosis. One look: that the miracles in September? These are my same cores departed from me and sat next to the trees (Nucleus — a small bee family, in which a young queen is going through puberty, is fertilized and begins oviposition — A. P.). Fortunately, I was able to return the "pet" back. The case once again convinced me that to kill parasites is rapidly disposable. However, their application should be repeated at least three times, but it is a more gentle way.
I want to say that you can not replace honey with sugar. For 25 years, I do not give my bees artificial feeding, and over the years they are almost painful. For example, I had forgotten what a bee foulbrood.
Going back to the causes of extinction of bees in the U.S. and Europe, I might add, that these causes virtually identified by scientists. The main reason — the dangerous virus, but, as I said, the distribution depends on a combination of several factors. Pesticides cause weakening of the immune bees and varroa mites are carriers of infectious diseases. Obviously applies to them and destructive virus (specialists Agency food safety France (AFFSA) and research institutes in France, Belgium and England conducted a comprehensive study of the causes of the collapse of bee colonies, and in the final report, released in late 2008, emphasizes the crucial role in these processes play 29 biological agents — parasites, fungi, bacteria and viruses, some of which interact with each other — A. P.).
According to Ivanov, of the situation, there is one way out — the creation of products that are not harmful to bees. This applies both to pesticides, and the means to combat bee diseases. Well, until Ukraine threatens massive sea cruise toilers. This is the rare case where our poverty — the good, the majority of domestic agricultural enterprises simply can not afford to purchase expensive pesticides.
Victor can talk for hours about beekeeping. Experienced beekeeper said that if during the Soviet era in the district bee society had 120 members, but now there are not more than forty. Of them serious beekeepers — six or seven. Why? The answer is simple: Beekeeping — is a big job, and people now do not want to work. All are trying to "cut the dough in a hurry …"
Ivanov likes to say: Karl Marx "wrote off" a socialist society with bee family. "Bee family — so advanced and perfect social organism, that if people followed him to at least 50 percent, then we would not have any problems," — says the beekeeper.
Source: Peak hour