100 years ago submarines substantiated its combat effectiveness, confidently taking its place in the field of naval armaments. Specifically nuclear submarine was entrusted noble role «gravediggers of mankind.»
In connection with high complexity and overhead, nuclear submarines were at first only in the fleets of the USSR and the USA. After some time they were joined by British and French nuclear submarines. Later, the Chinese nuclear submarines. Currently there are submarines in the Indian Navy — Indians use Russian equipment, but at the same time intensively working on a project of their submarines.
Like no matter what technological system, submarines various projects own their advantages and shortcomings. It also tried to find South American educational channel Discovery, making the best rating submarines. From my perspective, stupid and ignorant directly associate submarine different eras. Imagine navigator German U-bot trying to find with a simple gyro, where is the North under the damn water, to swim and what to do — battery is nearly empty, there is no communication with the shore, and on the tail of the enemy antisubmarine ships. What have in common with the German explorer modern submarine crew member, curb satellite communications and navigation? Icebreaker can operate secretly for months in surface of the sea, and his gun is capable of incinerating all life on several continents. More logical, based applets «Best subs» mapped only nuclear submarines.
A few more words from the theory of submarines. Despite their good fighting properties, submarines all the same very specific instrument, which is almost always not able to change the surface ships. Submarine powerless against aviation, and in the case of local conflicts, when, for example, necessary to support fire Troopers, their potential impact against ground targets disappear small. Main quality submarine combat — stealth, specifically this option usually costs at the forefront when comparing submarines. Although dignity is often a drawback — the submarine can not declare its own presence, as its just not visible. But these are trifles.
Even worse is the fact that the submarine force, acting separately from aircraft and ships are easy prey. German aces submariners first stuffed big bills for yourself destroying unarmed transports or attacking the enemy unprepared. With the emergence of more or less severe reaction, the effectiveness of «wolf packs» Doenitz has sharply decreased, and when the hunt started sea anti-submarine aircraft, radars and appeared new acoustic station, the Germans vanished last chances for success. During the second World 783 German U-bot days are left on the Atlantic, killing 32,000 submariners!
Moral of this — perfectly controlled submarine with its puzzles, but use them to solve all the problems facing the Navy — stupid and inefficient. And now, I think you should go to a specific rating.
10th place — the type of «Virginia»
Multipurpose nuclear submarine of the U.S. Navy 4th generation.
Head ship entered service in 2004. In the ranks of today — 8 submarines, according to the plan up to 2030 should be built 22 more submarines
At first sight, the property world’s most modern nuclear-powered cause a deep sense of frustration. Submerged speed — 25 knots, operating depth — 250 meters. Yeah … such figures will not surprise even Kriegsmarine submariners. Does not possess weapons and 4 torpedo tubes and 12 vertical silos for launching cruise missiles «Tomahawk». Ammunition — 26 torpedoes and 12 «battle-ax.» Sparsely. From special funds — the boat is equipped with an airlock to exit frogmen and unmanned underwater vehicles.
But there is this project and a number of strengths that make submarine «Virginia» very unsafe underwater adversary. Full stealth — this is her motto! System isolated decks, air cascade depreciation of equipment, new «Silencing» of the case, and a propeller enclosed in fenestron (ducted) — all this provides maximum low noise level. Boat virtually undetectable on a background of ocean noise. Brand new nuclear power plant General Electric S6E allows recharge the reactor once in 30 years, which corresponds to the design life of the submarine.
«Virginia» is full of different «high-tech» systems and modern avionics. For the first time in the world instead of the usual periscope used telescopic mast on which the camera, infrared detector and a laser rangefinder. Image transmitted to a monitor in the control room via fiber optic cable. The decision, of course, fascinating.
But … how would not try South American submariners admire own newest boat, this is absolutely not what were their dreams. 20 years ago, such a nuclear submarine in the battle of the U.S. Navy would have caused outrage — America was preparing to build a completely different submarines, with features extremely high and very highest price. According to these indicators «Virginia» — all just compromise. Yet, this project boats carry within themselves successful innovative solutions that have the highest potential for combat and designed for general construction.
9 place — Typhoon
Heavy missile submarine strategic focus of Project 941. Length of its body as two football fields. Height — with a nine-house. Submerged displacement — 48 000 tonnes. Crew — 160 people.
The largest submarine ever made by man. Incomprehensible achievement based on the belief of combat effectiveness, but at the same time it is impossible not to admire the size of the submarine. The whole project was built 6 941 nuclear missile submarines.
Due to its enormous size, «Typhoon» was able to breach the ice up to 2.5 meters (!), Which opened up the prospect of Russian submarine cruiser combat duty in big arctic latitudes.
Another advantage of this indescribable «underwater catamaran» — the highest possible vitality. Nineteen (!) Watertight compartments have allowed to disperse and duplicate all of the principal systems of the spacecraft. Reactors «Typhoon» is a 2-yi-independent compartments in different packages submarine.
What? What kind of different packages we are talking?
Its vast size «Typhoon» was due to solid-fuel ballistic missile R-39 with a launch weight of 90 tons on board nuclear submarine, there were 20 pieces. Designers had to use unconventional layout decisions, as a result — this indescribable «underwater catamaran» has two separate strong titanium body (technically they are generally 5!). With all this mass of seawater, located in the outer hull is 15 000 tonnes, for which «Typhoon» was in the Navy ironic nickname «water carrier». But its strategic nuclear deterrence puzzle he performed at 100%. It is best about this project uttered spetsy KB «Malachite» — «victory of technology over common sense.»
8th place — «Goldfish»
Records, which do not report to TASS. December 18, 1970 the Northern Fleet nuclear submarine K-162 submerged set an absolute world record speed of stroke — 44.7 knots (82.78 km / h).
In the autumn of 1971, during a hike in the distant Atlantic — until the Brazilian basins, she once outstripped aircraft carrier «Saratoga» — grouping the U.S. Navy and was unable to put it down. Russian submarine, despite all attempts evasion, simple and directly engaged in profitable position to attack the eyes of the astonished Yankees.
Also good running properties, K-162 (1978 — K-222) has a decent weapon. As the lead caliber — 10 anti-ship missiles launchers «Amethyst», also had four torpedo tubes and 12 torpedoes.
Why on super-project 661 «Upas Tree» was built just only one submarine? Are several circumstances:
Very highest noise, at speed over 35 knots K-162 created a terrible roar. In the control room acoustic noise level reached 100 decibels. This deprived stealth boat and compete in speed with anti-submarine helicopters was stupid.
Another funny moment, titanium monster USSR cost 240 million rubles (at this time the South American taxpayers have paid 450 million dollars for an aircraft carrier «Enterprise» in 1960 for one dollar given 60 cents … here and read). Indescribable, but the fact is — the submarine cost almost like a huge nuclear aircraft carrier with a displacement of 85,000 tons. No wonder K-162 dubbed «Golden fish»!
7th place — «Elusive Mike»
Another record from the ocean depths — multipurpose nuclear submarine K-278 «Komsomolets» with a titanium case. August 4, 1985, it set an absolute record depth in the midst of submarines — 1027 meters!
In fact, the best submarine of the Soviet Navy was designed to have great depth — 1250 meters, with all this submarine-record holder could use his weapon at all depths; during test dives K-278, which is to shoot dummy torpedoes at a depth of 800 meters!
The only ship of Project 685 «Flipper» was well armed and very unsafe — 6 bow torpedo tubes and 22 ammunition. The complex submarine weapons were strategic cruise missiles «Granat», high-speed underwater missile «Squall», anti-submarine missiles, torpedoes «Waterfall» with nuclear warheads and electronic homing torpedoes.
Breathtakingly submarine became an unsolved mystery for the Navy, «potential enemy» — at a depth of 1 kilometer «Elusive Mike» show no acoustic, magnetic or other means.
Scenes from the submersibles «Mir», 1994
Well … no desire to mention it … this is the submarine, who died as a result of a fire in the Norwegian Sea, 7 April 1989. K-278 sank at a depth of 1858 meters, the crew was rescued. Clear prerequisites death submarines are not installed until now, the Arctic firmly keeps its lurking.
6th place — «Killer cities»
November 15, 1960 for the first time came in combat patrols nuclear missile submarine «George Washington» with ballistic missiles. The main task of the new underwater ship was drawing from the depths of the oceans nuclear missile strikes on key administrative centers, facilities, military and economic potential and larger towns with a view to their complete destruction.
The ideas in the framework of the principle of the project consisted of the following:
— ballistic missile launched from a submarine has the lowest flight time, compared with a missile launched from the ground base. This factor provides a huge surprise and reduces the time during which the enemy can take countermeasures;
— nuclear submarine missile carrier has great mobility as compared with ordinary diesel boat that the enemy is not able to find it just right and hit;
— in the presence of a certain number of nuclear-missile submarines in position in the world’s oceans, the enemy never will determine where he should expect an attack;
During the year, «J. Washington «joined 4 similar submarine. Entering the starting position in the Norwegian Sea and the Mediterranean, any of them could run 16 ballistic missiles «Polaris» A-1 at a distance of 2,200 km. Missiles equipped with warheads of 600 kilotons of explosive power, start performed with a depth of 20 meters. Frankly feeble properties from the perspective of the day, but 50 years ago strategic missile submarines of the «J. Washington «forced the world to shudder.
5th place — Unique «Lira»
Submarine Interceptor Project 705 (K). And mercilessly elusive killer designed for hunting enemy submarines. Submerged speed — 41 knot, indescribable, but «Lear» developed full speed after a moment of motionless position. At full speed, with a circulation of 180 ° rotation was performed for 40 seconds. Such focus allows escape from anti-submarine torpedoes.
«Lear» could retreat 30 minutes from the pier, dial move and hide under the water, disappearing into the depths of the oceans (ordinary submarines it takes 2-3 hours). So amazing properties — the result of special technical solutions applied in the development of this project.
In 1-x, spices KB «Malachite» tried to reduce the maximum size of the submarine, minimizing the crew and leaving only one reactor. Submarine curb inclusive automatic control system operated by a crew of only 32 officers.
In 2-x, as a structural material was used … true titanium. And, of course, for the extraordinary boat took extraordinary power plant — reactor coolant watery iron (LMC) — circuits reactor boiling not water, and melt lead and bismuth. In fact, a similar «unit» was used by only Russian submarine K-27, not having gone to the series. Also reactor LMC tested on American submarine USS Seawolf »(SSN-575), but after 4 years of operation, it was dismantled and changed into ordinary reactor with water cooling. Because «Lyra» became the world’s only nuclear submarines series with the reactor with liquid metal. Such type reactors possess indisputable advantage — exceptional «pick-up» and the highest power density.
Coupled with the fact the LMC reactor is inflated danger and requests special measures to comply with the rules of operation. In the case of the smallest point, one hundred percent of the coolant stops doing its function, making the reactor in a nuclear bomb. Most of the boats with the LMC reactors (including experimental K-27) left the combat fleet because of bad stories that have occurred in the reactor compartment. Since April 8, 1982, during a military campaign, the deck submarine K-123 resulted watery 2 tons of metal from the first loop reactor. Elimination of the consequences of the tragedy took 9 years.
Item-based atomarin Ave 705 (K) is in the Western Face. There was also created special for onshore service submarines of this type: a boiler for supplying steam to the ships at the piers — plavkazarma and destroyer, with steam from its own boiler. But, based on the belief that security was not much — a tragedy for ordinary thermal line threatened to grow into strshnuyu radiation disaster. Because «Lyra», «basking» their own, their reactors are constantly working on the little controlled power level. Boat could not for a single moment to quit without attention. All this did not add «Lira» in the midst of popularity residents garrison.
All 6 times Cool scary scary war were completely written off in 90 years, putting an end to the development of nuclear submarine reactors LMC. On both sides of the ocean heaved a sigh of relief — «Lyra» were harsh underwater adversary for the U.S. Navy, but at the same time the baby was quite ruthless towards their own crew and staff military base in West Face.
4th place — «Pike-B» vs. «The Sea Wolf»
The best of the best. Russian multipurpose nuclear submarine of project 971 «Pike-B» has absorbed the most successful ideas illustrious predecessor Project 671RTMK and titanium submarine Project 945 «Barracuda».
Terrible underwater soldier was not created for records. It was obmyslenny to detail, the equilibrium project multipurpose submarines that actually no feeble places. Submerged speed — 30 knots. Operating depth — 480 meters, the maximum — 600. Armament — eight torpedo tubes, 40 rounds of ammunition in a different composition: cruise missiles «Granat» with nuclear warheads, anti-submarine missiles, torpedoes, underwater missiles «Squall», deep mines and homing torpedoes UGST. Among other things, «Pike-B» was armed with powerful torpedoes «65-76» 650 mm caliber. Warhead — 450 kg, cruising range — about 30 nautical miles. Search speed -30 knots at the time of attack — 50 … 70 knots. NPS could storm the enemy, without entering the zone acts of his anti-funds, and new avionics and hydroacoustic equipment allowed the Mariners to keep the boat under control in a radius of 10 miles from Male submarines.
In the 80s an international scandal erupted — the press have got information that the KGB through nominees ‘civic’ s
customers bought from the company «Toshiba» precision machine tools for metalworking. Propellers made on the newest technology, at times reduced noise Russian submarine. America imposed sanctions against avaricious managers «Toshiba», but the point is made — «Pike-B» is already out to sea.
Currently, multi-purpose submarines of Project 971 submarine fleet constitute the basis of. Total time to build 14 «Pikes-B», another — K-152 «Nerpa» was completed in the export version, April 4, 2012 on the basis of Vishakhapatnam boat was taken into operation in the Indian Navy. A few more buildings that are in the highest degree of readiness, were used in the construction of SSBNs type «Northwind».
Stung Russian advantages, the Pentagon decided to take immediate countermeasures. In October 1989, the United States was founded a new type of submarine with a frightening naming «Seawolf» («The Sea Wolf»).
Americans tried as best they could on the latest revolutionary propulsion submarines used — waterjet. Were increased distance between the hull and machinery GEM, used and new sound-absorbing coating suspension. Boat virtually undetectable when going 20 knots speed.
Complex and powerful arms wide: universal torpedoes Mark-48 tactical cruise missiles «Tomahawk» anti-ship missiles, «Harpoon» anti-personnel mines «Keptor.» For their start-up used eight 660 mm torpedo tubes mounted on the sides of the submarine. Bow of the boat absolutely busy ebb 6 more passive sonar antennas installed along the sides. Finally came the real ocean gangster capable to deal with what ever the enemy. Here are just a cost issue … 4 billion dollars. Not a bad submarine usually stands as an aircraft carrier.
30 «Sea Wolf» had subsequently become a mainstay of the U.S. Navy, but, due to the collapse of the USSR, built only three boats. Instead sailors received «Virginia» with reduced features (Remember, we had read about it?).
«Sea Wolf» is naturally cool, but as a part of the Russian Navy are three times as many submarines pr.971 «Pike-B» is not inferior to him in hell.
3rd place — a type of «Los Angeles»
Series of 62 multipurpose nuclear submarines of the U.S. Navy. Americans love their own name «fast attack submarines», that, in fact, means «submarine-chasers.» Main objectives — a cover carrier battle groups and areas of deployment of strategic missile submarines, fighting with enemy submarines. One of the few submarines, though some have combat experience — during the «Desert Storm» two «Los Angeles» were involved in the attacks on ground targets.
What is the secret of their popularity? «Los Angeles’ own known reliability and low noise. They are quite mobile (submerged speed of 35 knots) are of moderate size and price. True «workhorse» of the fleet.
Boats are well armed — there are 4 torpedo tubes and 12 vertical launch silos for «Tomahawk», the total ammunition — 38 missiles and torpedoes. «Tomahawk», «Harpoons», «sly» mines «Keptor» — a standard set of an American submarine. Some of the «Los Angeles» are equipped with container Dry Deck Shelter for underwater saboteurs.
Open the cover of missile silos
America is not in a hurry to part with their proven submarines. Even with a new «Virginia», many of the «Los Angeles» being upgraded and will remain in service as a minimum until 2030.
2nd place — type «Ohio»
Most advanced nuclear submarine. When submerged displacement of 18,700 tons of South American designers
able to «push» to «Ohio» 24 silos for ballistic missile launching «Trident».
The rest is ordinary submarine, built in the best traditions of the South American submarine fleet: 4 compartments, a single reactor, submerged speed of 20-25 knots, four torpedo tubes for self-defense. To increase the combat strength «Ohio» was made emphasis in 2-directions. In 1-x, the developers have gained meaningful reduction of acoustic, magnetic, and thermal radiation fields. In-2-x, combat stability of the boat provides only the highest secrecy regime — during combat patrol clear provision SSBN unclear even manage coordinates know only a few senior officers of the submarine.
In connection with the contract on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, 4 out of 18 «Ohio» were reclassified to SSGN (nuclear submarine with cruise missiles). Ballistic missiles «Trident» were extracted from mines in return for 22 missile mine is located 154 Tactical «Tomahawk» (7 each). The coming two to cutting mine converted into the lock chambers for frogmen. In addition, on the boat, except for the ground crew can be located 66 paratroopers.
Surprisingly, but made 35 years ago, «Ohio» absolutely meet modern requirements, for all that their operational intensity ratio corresponds to 0.6. This means that two thirds of his time boats spend on combat patrol.
The U.S. Navy plans to bring one hundred percent «Ohio» from the fighting of the fleet is not until after 2040. Sixty years on active service? Let’s see, let’s see …
1st place — Nautilus
January 17, 1955 on the radio sounded historic message: «Underway on nuclear power» («Come on nuclear energy!»).
Submarine USS Nautilus (SSN-operative code 571) entered into history as the first real submarine, which forever belongs first place. Apologies for the involuntary pun, but all its predecessors in diesel submarines fact were not. They were «dive» boats, spending the lion’s share of time on the surface. Immersion seen as a tactical maneuver, and the time of being under water was limited to the read of days. With all this mobility submerged boat was very limited.
Only eternal flame nuclear reactor allowed absolutely hide under the water, providing submarine inexhaustible source of energy. From this point despite all the limitations of the old philosophers, a person could be months to days of sea, creating its own indomitable way to new achievements.
More on the design step, it became clear what the prospects opening up before ships with nuclear power plant. In 1954, the «Nautilus» was launched, began the first tests, instilling confidence in seafarers in its power over the forces of nature. Icebreaker developed submerged 23 knots and could maintain this speed indefinitely long. Within reasonable boundaries obviously one reactor charging enough for 25,000 nautical miles. This figure means that the cruising range «Nautilus» submerged was limited only to supplies of goods, air crew and endurance.
Putting your own first record only the light phenomenon, «Nautilus» kept hitting — August 3, 1958, he became the first ship to reach the North Pole. Inspired by the successes of nuclear power, the South American sailors in 1959 completely abandoned the construction of diesel-electric submarines.
And then … and then began naval weekdays. «Nautilus» to exploitation helpful shitty ship. Vibration turbines was such that at 4 knots sonar became worthless. Sospedotochennye nagpuzki and sizes of significant enepgeticheskogo compartment claimed new layout decisions, with all this mass of lead bio protection was 740 tons (nearly a quarter of the displacement of the ship!). Had to abandon the project provided a number of equipment.
«Nautilus» and became famous as the record for the number of PE. In the main it was a navigational error (eg ram carrier «Essex» in 1966, or a poor attempt to break through the Arctic ice during the conquest of the North Pole). Not without nonacidic fire — in 1958 the submarine was burning for several hours.
After serving a quarter-century, the submarine rose to endless joke in Groton, turned into a floating museum.
I wish everyone to live your life as brightly as it did «Nautilus».
Oleg created Kaptsov