Expansive or, as they are called, bullets «dum-dum» — a special bullet design which provides for a significant increase in their diameter when ingested myagenkie human tissue, which leads to a substantial increase in their lethal capabilities and / or reduction in the depth of penetration of bullets. Under expansiveness, in fact, is the ability of such bullets expand to proper initial diameter when released into the tissue or other myagenkie Myagenkaya environment. Currently, the implementation of such ammunition in military weapons is forbidden, but they are quite widely used for self defense and hunting. For example, almost all hunting bullets in the current time are expansive. Introduction of hunting bullets tselnoobolochechnyh military standard is invalid.
In many centuries with different hand firearms used myagenkie non-enveloped lead bullets comparable large calibers. Such bullets when ingested myagenkie flattened tissue, increasing their diameter. For this score they are perfectly transferred its energy targets, inflicting quite languid people injured. But by the end of XIX century, the situation began to change. In the last quarter century military in the world started to run across the rifled cannon of small caliber 6.5-8 mm (at the time they were considered small, now belong to the usual caliber) and smokeless powder.
With all of this non-enveloped myagenkie bullets often do not withstand the pressure that created in the gun barrel, smokeless powder, and frustrated with the rifling of the barrel. Given this event, the designers had to go to the widespread use of bullets which had over the lead core to the same shell made of a harder metal (in most cases used copper, also used brass, nickel silver, red brass or steel). Such bullets were rifling on the barrel very tightly, without actually polluting it.
Pretty quickly it was found that the damaging effect of the new bullets and their stopping power is much lower than that of old non-enveloped. Particularly sensitive to this fact was the armies that then perceived role in the colonial wars that were fought against the so called «wild» peoples. For example, during the 1895 campaign Chitralskoy British soldier in the midst of a strong belief spread that they applied the new bullets are ineffective, and continue to fight the enemies, even being injured because modern bullets with not able to deform in the wound channel, and means and excellent transfer their energy to the target. Often bullet «pierced» opponents bleed, leaving a discreet body inlet and outlet openings and inflicting fatal damage only if it enters the relevant principal organs.
Bullets «dum-dum»: flowers perdition
As a result, management of the British army put the puzzle to make a bullet that would have been able to inflict a wound, rather harsh, even in order to suspend the most stubborn fanatic. It should be noted that a similar effect had many standards and later small tools, such as Russian TT pistol, which had a large penetrating ability, but with all this small stopping power.
In accordance with the issued military installation in the early 90-ies of the XIX century in one of the British arms factories located on the terrain of India (factory was located in the suburbs of Calcutta entitled Dum-dum), the British officer Captain Neville Bertie Kleyemom presented new expanding bullets vserasprostranennomu patron to 303 British. This cartridge was used with rifles, Lee-Metford, and later with a rifle Lee-Enfield. Neville did the latest bullet by removing 1 mm copper alloys with standard tip bullets Mark II .303 caliber. This operation has allowed bare Myagenkaya lead core bullets. New British Army ammunition used extensively during the 1897-1898 campaign Tiraskoy years. During the fighting the new bullets shown impressive stopping power. Since then, the title of «dum-dum» for this type of ammunition has become synonymous.
With all this, despite vserasprostranennym speculation, the British army did not accept service ammunition Neville Bertie Kleyema. At this time in England, on Vulvichskom Arsenal were in full swing to create independent works similar bullets. Here made bullets with which had bare with lead core located inside the cavity. Now such bullets denote HP — hollow point, in other words a bullet with a cavity located in the bow. These bullets were called Mark III, the British army took them into service in 1897, with all this in the same year they managed to oust the improved version — Mark IV. At this point, the term «dum-dum» has become so vast vserasprostranen that was used as the unofficial title for all without exception, expanding bullets. Because Mark IV became known as well, although they were made not on Arsenal in Dum Duma, and in England itself.
Already in 1899 these bullets were forbidden to use the Hague Convention, a special, as it was christened, «Duma dum» declaration, which approved and signed by 15 countries. With all of this 11 states abstained from signing it. It should be noted that the adoption of the Declaration prerequisite was not only humanism, which decided to show politicians and the military. Just such weapons were not allowed to reach the highest speed of a bullet, and hence decreased and the range of their use. At the same time, the capacity of a powder charge myagenkaya lead bullet «dum-dum» breaks with rifling inside the barrel and almost turns scoring rifling lead. Also at this time the army of the world began in droves arm machine guns and rifles shop and found out that expanding bullets still have a severe drawback. During the feeding of cartridges from the tape (store) in the trunk she could deform, causing stoppages and delays in shooting guns as a denial.
Naturally, a ban was not warned warring states use such massive funds moral effect on the enemy. In fact, none of the XX century armed conflict have not been without their introduction, although their implementation and for all that was camouflaged. Adopted by the Hague Declaration did not apply to cartridges for hunting and police firearms. Some standards of these weapons were designed for the cartridges, which were in service with the Army. For these samples is quite simply produced slightly modified expanding bullets. Such bullets in different ways and in small quantities can be compared to get into the army.
Besides, there were always military craftsmen who during a lull at the front (extensive spread this practice received during trench warfare) without the help of others or sawed down ratfilem notched apex of conventional bullets. With all this formally such munitions were banned by the army and were not accepted, but it is unclear or the 1st option punishment by commanders for their implementation. Payback could come only in this case after the capture of enemy prisoner found in such munitions. Such «lucky» usually shot on the spot.
Temptation to have such kind of ammunition could not ignore the USSR. In 1939, to the adoption of the Red Army was recommended breaking (expansive) bullet DD. This consisted of the bullet shells having notches at the top, the lead core as the special ballistic tip made of plastic. The creation of these bullets have been deployed at the plant number 60. Factory workers were able to master data creation bullets, but used for their manufacture substandard plastic, which led to the fact that commercially produced bullets could not pass the test.
During the war, in 1942, the factory tests were conducted bullets DD lightweight construction, which did not have a ballistic tip. This bullet sensitivity did not satisfy the requirements of peace-time, but with the simplicity of its design and manufacture as a whole, also taking into account the satisfactory results on the accuracy of fire and movement conjugation line with conventional bullets, DD has been approved for the adoption.
Rifle bullet in the upcoming DD became the basis for the creation of similar ammunition — 7.62mm submachine gun cartridge standard 1943. This cartridge was designated as P-44. After a series of tests to discontinuous action was set maximum range at which the action was manifested expansive bullets, it was 300 meters. Great distances P-44 is not deformed when hitting a target, acting as an ordinary bullet. Bullet P-44 never entered service due to a mismatch want TTX (discontinuous action at a distance up to 500 meters).
Despite the introduction of the ban on military data bullets not lost its relevance in the XXI century. They need to solve those problems, where the determining factor is the highest stopping power bomb and not firing range (pistols, shotguns). Implementation of bullets «dum-dum» in hunting weapons seems desirable because they seldom leave wounded game (the wounded animal that after a while doomed to death). These properties have made very expansive vserasprostranennymi ammunition for civilian police operations and short-guns. Police presence fundamentally superior stopping acts, which is mixed with a very low probability of hitting the target bleed, which in turn lowers the risk of hurt bystanders.