Nearly one-sixth of the male population is subjected to the procedure of excision of the prepuce, or circumcision (the medical term "circumcision"). However, experts still can not come to a consensus about how useful and safe procedure that can be considered.
In some countries, circumcision is part of the historical, cultural and religious traditions enshrined centuries-old practice. Thus, the Jews of children circumcised on the eighth day after birth, the Muslims — to 13-year life. Europe in this operation is traditionally treated with skepticism, but in the early 60s in the West suddenly flashed "boom circumcision." He began to do as an adult male, and (at the request of the parents, of course) newborns. On the question of religion was not: the foreskin deprived of Christians, Buddhists and atheists …
The reason why so dramatically changed the public opinion, were the results of studies examining the relationship between circumcision and cancer of the reproductive organs. As it turned out, the Jews and the Arabs is a disease almost does not occur, and cervical cancer in women of the same ethnic groups, there are 6-7 times less often than the others. This data was so impressed by the pragmatic Western society that U.S. President John Fitzgerald Kennedy became publicly promote the idea of trimming the foreskin (and inspired by this sobsvtennym example).
In the 70-80's fashion circumcision began to decline, and then the American Academy of Pediatrics has summed up the kind of perennial medical research on the subject: "the operation of circumcision in newborn has the potential medical advantages, but also disadvantages and some risk." The inability of experts directly and unambiguously divided on the issue was the cause of a fairly active confrontation between supporters and opponents of circumcision. The latter, in particular, argued that no benefit can not justify the pain and trauma that is applied to the baby during the circumcision.
Here are the most frequently repeated the arguments of both sides.
The advantages include the cutoff:
- possible prevention of cancer sexual of both men and women;
- increase the duration of sexual intercourse;
The fact that the skin of the head phallus devoid prepuce, becomes rougher and less sensitive to friction during the frictions that pushes the onset of orgasm in men. Therefore, doctors may recommend circumcision for those who suffer premature ejaculation.
- improving the appearance of the penis.
Per person, educated in certain traditions, wrinkled skin of the foreskin makes a bad impression.
The most sensational discovery belongs to an Australian scientist. After careful consideration of ways and means of transmission of HIV, they came to the conclusion that circumcision— The most effective tool against AIDS. Because the virus affects primarily the foreskin, which is subject to frequent microtraumas and the risk of infection through these lesions is very high. According to statistics, the vast majority of men who contracted AIDS through sex — uncut. Along the way, it became clear that uncircumcised men often affect sexual and infectious diseases.
The main drawbacks are:
- Complaints of pain. Circumcision causes severe pain, because newborns do this operation often without anesthesia. Recently, however, due to the numerous protests of parents, local anesthesia yet begun to apply.
- Problems hygienic character. In infancy cleansing of the glans penis in boys (and girls clitoris) is actually itself. But after circumcision there is an urgent need to carefully care for the head member, as the deepening and folds of skin in the bridle and the corolla — the perfect place for bacteria.
- Controversy ethical standards.
In the nineties, with the rise of radical human rights and environmental organizations, there were a number of ethical issues including health. For circumcision question was posed as follows: "Removing any part of the human body without consent is unacceptable." And because the baby can not give consent to cut off his own prepuce, This procedure, according to the followers of Human Ecology, originally inhumane and should be a complete ban.