April 5, 2012 6:44
The phenomenon, which will be discussed, is known to mankind since time immemorial. At least one of the first mention of it dates back to 373 BC and refers to the ancient Rome. Over the past century has accumulated a lot of facts about the unusual light effects associated with earthquakes. These effects were observed both at the time of the earthquake, and shortly before the first tremor, thus playing the role of original (optical) harbingers of disaster.
The many aspects of the phenomenon
Lighting effects in relation to earthquakes on the manifestations can be divided into four groups.
1. Nonlocal glow. This group consists of cases emission of air, sky, and flashes in the sky. Here are a few examples.
Earthquake in 1703 Genroku (Japan), which had a magnitude of 8.2 on the Richter scale, caused in the south of Edo (now Tokyo) colossal failure. For a few nights before the most powerful drive and after witnesses saw the glow of air. The same thing happened during the tragedy Ashgabat October 5, 1948 (magnitude 7.6 earthquake). Geophysicist Vladimir Savchenko, who hit the underground elements caught in the streets of the city, said: "It started suddenly. There was a low rumble of heavy, earth suddenly went from under my feet. The new push, even more than before, threw me to the ground. Circle heard screams of people in the weak light of the lantern I saw with horror as crashed and turned into a veil of dust, the nearest cottage. And here's something terrible happened — was air flare … Have you read must be in science fiction novels, as a person before you get to the other, alien world, or is covered by "deathly greenish fog" or part of "ghost blue lights ", or something else … And here pohlestche fantasy reality plus menacing rumble, thunder, trees, swaying like a blade of grass in the wind."
On the eve of the earthquake in 1855 in Edo (magnitude 6.9) in the sea came a group of 19 people. Shortly before the first push people suddenly noticed the glow of the sky to the north-east. It was so bright that it was easy to consider the distinct color patterns on clothing. Soon after, the glow from the water came a terrible roar that made people assume that the bottom of the boat hit the mass of gravel. And then a bright flame, accompanied by different sounds, enveloped the sky. Before the Tashkent earthquake of April 26, 1966, who had a magnitude of 5, according to some residents, the sky above the epicenter of the light too. The glow of the city observed a few hours before the stroke and was whitish-pink in color, resembling scattered light lightning.
Flash in the sky observed before several earthquakes, for example, on the eve of the underground strike September 1, 1923 in Kanto (area surrounding Tokyo) saw a flash of light, a woman in the center of the Japanese capital. Noteworthy message geologist, witness the earthquake in Ashgabat (1948): "I went back to the hotel late and was about to go to bed, when he noticed a strange flash in the window, silently illuminates the horizon … I thought it was a thunderstorm, and therefore the subsequent roar and shaking, I took a belated first thunder … "A similar description belongs eyewitness earthquake in Tashkent (1966):" I heard a loud noise from the left side, resembling engine noise, immediately on the same side there was an unusually bright flash of blinding white, which within seconds increased in brightness with such force that I had to close my eyes. Then there was a push, almost brought down my feet. After the shock quickly became light fade. " The catastrophic earthquake in northern China (magnitude is also accompanied by a short light effect. Hot sultry night July 28, 1976 a huge bright flash in the sky suddenly lit up all around. After her terrible blow shook Tanyian-Fennan is one of the densely populated areas of China, located 150 km south-east of Beijing — destroyed many residential buildings, farm buildings and factories.
2. Linear luminous structure. This includes emission bands, arcs, vertical pillars or torches.
Thus, with the earthquake in the Izu Peninsula (Japan) November 26, 1930 (magnitude 7), according to local residents in the sky have long strips that resemble the Northern Lights.
And that's what the witness said meteorologist Pomutsky Ashgabat disaster: "Before going to bed I went out to get some fresh air. Suddenly appeared blindingly bright discharges. They formed an arc that was approaching from the mountains in my direction and went into the ground near the water tower of 30-40 meters from me. This was followed by a gust of wind. He stopped a moment, and immediately shook the earth. "
An earthquake in 1927 in the Crimea remarkable light effects in the form of a pillar of fire, to rise above the sea. Opposite Cape Lucullus these pillars soar to great heights — 500 m Something similar was observed by one witness Tashkent tragedy: "Over the Tashkent was a cloudless night sky. Out of the ground with a hiss escaped and soared over the rooftops giant torch light. Quite clearly outlined on the edges and blurred at the top, it is round and expanded to the form of a candle flame. Looking up from the earth, a mysterious omen dissolved in rosy light lightning blazes. "
3. Compact luminous objects. This group includes the glow in a form close to spherical.
During the earthquake in 1911 in Germany in the cloudless sky began to emerge fireballs. A similar picture was observed fishermen together after a boat on the water in the evening just before the earthquake in the Izu Peninsula (1930). They suddenly saw west of Mount AMAG bright spherical body with great speed flying through the north-west.
With the stroke of underground elements in Sineyu 1847 (Japan), the magnitude of which was 7.4, also linked light effects. Japanese scientist T. Terada sought a historical document, which states the following: "Against the background of dark sky in the direction of the mountain Iduna appeared fiery cloud. You could see how it rotates and then disappeared. Immediately afterwards there was a roar, followed by a powerful earthquake. " Something like that — a luminous cloud ellipsoid of the epicenter — seen during kasumkenskogo push the Caucasus April 20, 1966 (magnitude 5.5).
4. The glow of the surroundings. This includes the case of the radiation of the soil, equipment, wires, and turn off the lamp light.
For example, in the Carpathian earthquake in 1940 (magnitude 7.5), eyewitnesses observed in the epicentral area of the soil and the glow peaks. A similar case occurred during an underground strike October 24, 1959 a magnitude 5.7 in Central Asia (its epicenter was about 70 km from Tashkent): bluish flame covered slopes surrounding villages of mountain ranges.
Highly unusual testimony came from a witness earthquake in Kamchatka July 5, 1971: In the village. Krutoberegovoe (located approximately 100 km from the epicenter) at the push suddenly lit up the hood of the tractor on rubber tires.
However Carpathian earthquake remarkably diverse glow. Besides the already known to the reader, in addition, we note the glow predominantly red color transmission and power lines.
But, perhaps, a record number of registered various lighting effects can be considered repeatedly cited the Tashkent earthquake. Now we are really interested in this fact. Shortly before some witnesses noticed the spontaneous glow of fluorescent lamps are turned off.
The glow stopped for an hour and a half after the first tremor. Lamps, however, began to glow and before some Aftershocks Tashkent earthquake.
How to understand the phenomenon
In 1924 Tashkent geophysicist EA Cherniavsky pointed indignation geoelectric field before the earthquake. In the summer he and his expedition arrived in Dzhapap Abad (Kyrgyzstan) to study atmospheric electricity in the field. "On the day when we were struck by the unusual behavior of our device — wrote EA Chernyavsky — the sky was clear. However, the equipment is clearly shown — in the atmosphere broke out "electrical storm" with a very high potential. How to measure it, could not, as needle immediately went off scale. And two hours later, the earth opened. We saw a crack width of 1.5-2 m and a length of 40 m was then that I thought, maybe the earthquake was the cause of the anomalous state of the atmospheric electric field? "For five hours to the underground hit in Tashkent April 26, 1966 as there were indignation geoelectric field.
Enhancement of the field in the absence of any meteorological reason (storm, dust storm) may occur, for example, if the rocks at depth or the surface of the land is free electric charges.
According to the Tomsk scientist, Professor AA Vorobyov, the charges are a result of deformation and fracture of rock, crushed slip agents, etc. These processes may precede an earthquake. If this charge is not shielded by the overlying rocks, the field lines come to the surface, increasing the intensity of atmospheric electric field.
The earth's crust consists of separate tectonic plates, which are in constant motion. "When grappled projections collapse, an earthquake, — says Yuri Malyshkov, but for now, according to our assumption lithospheric electromagnetic fields in the region of compression will be suppressed, and in the tension — increase. The atmosphere will directed movement of charged particles (ions and free electrons) from areas with large fields to smaller fields. But the lighter electrons will move much faster. The compression region of low field strength will gradually become negatively charged, and the area stretching — backward positive charge. " According to Yu Malyshkova like natural particle accelerator is included before the earthquake and can run tens of hours. At this voltage, atmospheric electric field also increases.
Even in school the lessons of physics, we learn that no conductive material, or dielectrics, actually have not limitless electrical strength. Air — gas insulator — is no exception. And then the ground for possible occurrence of a brush-like cones of light — lights Elmo.
Some researchers have noted that the light anomalies are observed when in the earthquake region close to the surface lie kvartsesoderzhaschie texture. Mention the famous experiments of the American researcher B. Brady. In the dark chamber was placed a piece of granite (containing, as it is known, quartz crystals), where he was subjected to mechanical stress. The method of time-lapse photography recorded the destruction of granite. Checking the captured footage, B. Brady found glow that came from him, as if to fill the whole cell. If you repeat the experiment glow was visible even in a darkened room, and in one exceptional case, there was a bright light even in daylight.
In the late 80's employees Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of Georgia, TI Toroshelidze and L. M, Fishkova found that a few hours before the earthquake high in the atmosphere (about 100 km) above the epicenter of the growing intensity of the green-line emission of atomic oxygen . In the night from 21 to 22 September 1990, researchers again observed a twofold increased green fluorescence in the direction of Dagestan. And in the morning on September 22 there really was an earthquake of magnitude 6. According to scientists, the excitation of the upper atmosphere occurs under infrasonic waves from the source coming earthquake. In fact, the exponential growth of micro-cracks in the earth's crust to push can produce infrasound. If its intensity is high enough, then, spreading up infrasound waves can transfer some of their energy to the oxygen atoms, causing them pereizluchit it in the form of light with a characteristic wavelength of this element.
Please note one more thing. In the lower atmosphere over places of geological faults, as stated, the concentration of, for example, such a reactive gas, such as ozone, is several times higher than the background values "to make a reasonable assumption of a significant increase in the concentration of ozone prior to the earthquake, the bowels start to like hard" to breathe "the gas. Ozone — a strong oxidizing agent, moreover, it is poisonous. It is possible that the animals before the alarming impact of the underground (in fact some of them are known for their sensitivity to various atmospheric pollution) and has adverse effects on people living near the fault (the incidence is higher than the average level), it is ozone. However, we are interested in both.
Doctor of Science MT Dmitriev many years ago and discovered in detail the air luminescence caused by trace impurities present in it chemically active species. Usually it is so weak that the visual is completely transparent and is celebrated only by special devices. But the sudden increase in the concentration of these particles glow can be noticeable at night. The region of the bright glow called zones chemiluminescence. These zones can pulsate, have a different color (blue, red) and move.
The nature of this phenomenon is different, but this strange light often warns us about earthquakes.
Source: "Interesting newspaper. World of the unknown »№ 14 2011