According to one of the Mongolian legends, at a time when in place rocky Gobi desert still warm sea water splashing on its picturesque banks of the first descendants of the gods was built beautiful and rich city in which they lived sages and merchants, brave warriors and skilled craftsmen.
Lost in the desert
Hara-Hoto — that was the name of the legendary ancient city, which tells the story of the death of another Mongol tradition. It says that the last ruler of the city warrior Hara-jian-jun, wanting to take away the throne from the Emperor of China, declared war on him. However, having lost a number of battles, the warrior was forced to take refuge behind the impregnable walls of the city. Not being able to take the city by storm, the Chinese emperor ordered to withdraw from the Hara-Hoto riverbed Entsin Gol and thereby deprive him of his defenders water.
Seeing that the city and its inhabitants are doomed to certain death, Hara-Jian-jun put all your great treasures in a secret place, he killed his wife and children and gave a decisive battle in which was killed. Who broke into the Hara-Hoto Chinese troops destroyed all of its residents, and the city was turned into ruins …
About the dead, lost in the sands of the southern part of the Gobi desert city has long been known Russian travelers, scientists and researchers. In 1907, Nikolai Przewalski's apprentice, a famous Russian explorer Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov, organizing the expedition, went to Mongolia. After weeks of fruitless searching Kozlov managed to enlist the support of the prince of the tribe Torgouts-Bailey, who lived in those places, and with the help of the conductor March 19, 1907 the expedition arrived in the dead city, is located at the bend of the river Etszin Gol.
Conductor, whose name was Bat, Kozlov gave instructions prince, under which foreigners were forbidden to start a ruined city of pack animals, kindle fires and to eat food inside the city walls. Appearing in Hara-Hoto and women were not allowed. Similar bans were due to the fact that their violation would incur the wrath of the spirits, the founders of the ancient city. In support of this superstition Bath told Russian travelers to the story of how a century ago in search of stray horses in the city accidentally wandered into a local woman. Among the destroyed buildings, she found a few strands of large pearls. Barely coming out of the city, the woman suddenly got into a terrible sandstorm …
After a few days of her half buried corpse with sand squeezed in the palm of strings of pearls was found by a passing caravan …
The prince of the tribe Torgouts-Baile also wished that the Russian researchers in the case of their treasures batyra Hara Jian-jun found wealth gave him.
Eyes Russian travelers brought high fortress walls, is almost completely covered with the sand. At the Western Wall stood two mausoleums — suburgans, one of which was completely destroyed. Another well-preserved mausoleum located outside the fortress. This is where the researchers stumbled upon a number of amazing and priceless, from the historical point of view, the findings. So, inside the mausoleum scientists found rare examples of Buddhist iconography, made with colored inks on silk canvas, lots of metal and wooden figurines. Of particular value is found Library — over 2,000 well-preserved manuscripts and scrolls.
In the center of the mausoleum on a stone pedestal from which went up high metal pole, face-to-face located twenty clay figures tall as a man. Next to each of the pieces, stacked on top of each other, lay hundreds of handwritten pages. In the far corner suburgan scientists stumbled upon a well-preserved skeleton was in a sitting position. As suggested by the researchers, the skeleton could belong to a spiritual person for whom, in fact, was built this mausoleum …
Many interesting and mysterious discoveries awaited the members of the expedition and the city itself. Thus, in the center of Hara-Hoto scientists were cleared of sand strange structure — a round, height of two and a half meter stone structure that looked like a giant head cheese. On the top — flat — his side, researchers stumbled upon the strange cuneiform writing that differed from those found what they were made of the manuscript, and, apparently, belonged to a much earlier era, as well as the mysterious concentric circles, spirals and woven into intricate web of lines. All of it was carved out of the solid rock. According to scientists, the structure in ancient times could well serve the residents of the Observatory, as well as a sacred place where the ancient priests offered sacrifices to their gods.
Another interesting discovery was waiting for Russian researchers in one of the ruined buildings. After a thorough clearing of the astonished eyes of researchers appeared well-preserved fragments of wall paintings, which, in addition to the faces of the saints, were present images of strange creatures: the double-headed birds, fish with human heads, fearsome dragons. Next to these mythical creatures were located miniature human figures.
Hara-Hoto reveals its secrets
In mid-summer 1907 Kozlov from the Mongolian authorities received an order to cease excavation and leave the country. It was motivated by complaints to the administration of the local population that the strangers profaned by their presence "Forbidden City". By coincidence, it was during his stay in Hara-Hoto expedition in those regions established an unprecedented drought. On top of the central part of Mongolia swept a series of powerful aftershocks. All of this has been interpreted by the elders of the Mongolian tribes as a sign that the powerful presence of the spirits are unhappy in their land of the Gentiles.
Despite the obstacles created by the authorities, Kozlov managed to smuggle a large part of the found artifacts and manuscripts in St. Petersburg, in the Geographical Society. Due to the fact that the library was found dead city vocabulary of the language "B Xia," spoken by the Tangut, who once lived in the state, whose capital was Hara-Hoto, experts and scientists, which was part of the Company's managed to decipher most of the manuscripts found . Part of the scrolls has been filled with all sorts of recipes and drugs that helped attraction of people and livestock. A lot of space devoted to books found in the chronicles chronicles, of which it was reported that approximately 1226-1227 years Tangut state was crushed by troops of Genghis Khan, and then became part of the Great Mongol State.
However, some of the documents have not been able to decipher. This was due to the fact that they were written in an unknown language researchers. In one version of the scientists on the mysterious scrolls of ancient priests scrambled some magical texts, know that mere mortals are not allowed. Girlfriend — these letters are perhaps the only tangible evidence of a mysterious civilization that created the city of Hara-Hoto.
The great Russian thinker and researcher Nicholas Asia Roerich, having become acquainted with the artifacts found in the dead city, made the following entry in his diary: "I remember the miraculous image of a female head. If these people lived in the cities of the desert, how far are these places from the wilderness! "
Perhaps our great compatriot was right in thinking that these creations can be created by civilization, far ahead of its time in development. But for her resemble a silent ruins, covered with sand and surrounded by the set of exciting legends.