History of the state of UFO research in the USSR

January 29, 2012 16:26

In the mid-seventies, the Soviet Union has been pronounced by various public organizations engaged in "the study of the UFO problem," as a result, greatly increased interest in the issue among the general public.

Discussion of the problem is a significant phenomenon in the social life of the country, especially among the scientific and technical intelligentsia. Ample food for all kinds of speculation allowed, widespread so-called "lecture" Russian ufologists and numerous translated materials. I must say that these lectures were very popular and draw full houses. The authors of these lectures (the best-known use of MAI F.Yu.Zigel teacher and a retired naval engineer V.A.Azhazha) oriented students for extraterrestrial origin of UFOs, although not mentioned and less extravagant hypothesis underwater and even underground civilizations in contact with humanity .
In fact, the study "UFO problem" in various public organizations in this period was limited to collecting information on the various sizes of strange phenomena. The data collected were often very questionable origin, were distorted beyond recognition by repeated retransmission or simply untestable. Relationship of "strange phenomena" extraterrestrial activity authors 'lectures' simply postulated, and the results of observations or measurements carried out on the "UFO Landing" proved on closer acquaintance, to put it mildly, incorrect.
Over time, the press began publishing the observations of unusual light and optical phenomena in different regions of the USSR. The Academy of Sciences of the USSR, in newspapers and magazines, as well as in private collections gradually accumulated a very large number of messages with descriptions of a variety of strange phenomena and with requests to give it a "phenomenon" scientific or just a reasonable and logical explanation. For a comprehensive study of the problem was necessary to create a working group with the participation of scientists from different disciplines, establish operational contact between the institutions of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Higher Education, State Committee for Hydrometeorology and of course the Department of Defense, since such studies need to be carried out in close cooperation with the military.
The formal reason for the deployment of an organizational work was the so-called phenomenon of Petrozavodsk. September 20, 1977 at the end of the night people in the northwestern region of the USSR for a few minutes watching the large-scale development of unusual light phenomenon.
Description of this phenomenon, drawn from eyewitnesses, appeared in the newspaper "Izvestia" on September 23 in the article "Unidentified natural phenomenon."
"The residents of Petrozavodsk witnessed extraordinary natural phenomenon. September 20, about four o'clock in the morning in the dark sky suddenly flashed a huge "star", impulsively sends beams of light on the ground. This "star" slowly moving toward Petrozavodsk and sprawled on it as a huge "jellyfish", hung, showering the city has many subtle radial beams, which gave the impression of heavy rain.
After a while the glow of radiation ceased. "Medusa" turned bright circle and resumed moving toward Lake Onega, which enveloped the horizon gray clouds. This shroud then formed round scour bright red in the middle and white on the sides. Whole phenomenon according to witnesses, lasted 10-12 minutes.
Director of Petrozavodsk Hydrometeorological Observatory Yu.Gromov told Tass that the unique nature of the workers in the Met Karelia was not observed. "
Eyewitnesses this colorful phenomenon were very numerous, and consisted of representatives from a variety of professions, including amateur astronomers. Thus the fact of observing people Petrozavodsk unusual light phenomenon is indisputable and no doubt.
Soon it became clear that at the same time, a similar pattern was observed in the sky in places far removed from Petrozavodsk and even in Finland (Sadankyul), which were obtained a few photos of this phenomenon, so it is clear that the name of the phenomenon — "Petrozavodsk" is very conditional .
Ignore or simply dismiss such an event was not possible, due to the local authorities appealed to the Presidium of the USSR to explain the origin of the observed phenomenon. In addition, in the USSR and the editorial board of many newspapers went a stream of letters from people with the same question: what happened in the night sky over Petrozavodsk that September night?
Under the pressure of these circumstances the President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Academy of APAleksandrov signed a letter to the Soviet government to consider, as a matter of urgency the possibility of setting the research work on the comprehensive study of paranormal phenomena such as "Petrozavodsk", with broad involvement of organizations of the Ministry of Defence and the Defence industries.
After a series of decisions taken at the highest level in the Soviet Union in 1978, the state launched a program of studying the phenomenon of "UFO", continued without interruption for 13 years until 1990. Note that after the end of the research program in the Division of General Physics and Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences until 1996 continued to operate the expert group on anomalous phenomena, which has the task of the communications admitted to the Academy of Sciences of the witnesses' strange phenomena. " At present such reports are rare, but they are examined in OOFA.
To reduce the visibility to the legalization of work on UFOs, it was decided to do this research in private. It was caused by at least three factors:
* Formal membership of the work program to the private plan in defense work;
* Expected at the beginning of the work a high probability of military-technical origin observed strange phenomena;
* Ability to use in case of a successful solution of the task, the military interests of some probable properties of UFOs — the lack of radar contrast, high maneuverability, etc.
Due to the closed nature of the work on this problem, their coverage in the media has been very limited, and the publication of the UFO, it was recommended to send for review (not to be confused with censorship) in the USSR.
Decision MIC actually created two centers of UFO research — in the Ministry of Defence and the Academy of Sciences. The main line of division between the sources of the data. Defense worked with observations from a variety of arms, Academy conducts research based on reports collected by scientific institutions, services of the mentioned organization in newspapers and magazines, etc. Of course, the differences were for the process, which can be seen by the names of those . The military are one of the main goals was to determine the possible impact on the functioning of UFO technology and state personnel. And if such an effect would have been discovered, the first priority was getting the elucidation of its mechanism and its dangerous consequences. Academy of Sciences of the main task of the study put the physical nature of anomalous phenomena, ie modeling of processes, visual appearance and disappearance of the effects of their connection with the physical conditions in the environment and potential anthropogenic impacts on the environment. Clearly, these areas overlap and complement each other. It is also obvious that only joint efforts in research could lead to a rapid and accurate problem solving.
Prime contractor of the military part of the program of UFO research has been identified one of the suburban central military research institutions, and its chief — an authority in the field of research on the effects of radiation and other damaging factors for military equipment Balashov VP appointed supervisor of this line of work. Directly for research in the Institute of Defense headquarters was a small group of military and civilian experts, numbering in the years 4 to 5 people, which is essentially completed and the whole bulk of the work on the organization of the collection reports of UFO sightings, processing and analysis , the preparation of reports. Except of course the head of the performer in the cast topics included other research organizations MO various arms of the armed forces, academic institutions of the defense industrial sector, in all about 15. Formation of the performers was made without coercion, on a voluntary basis, and the participation of these organizations in specific activities to identify the UFO was also voluntary and are usually very limited.
Director of the "academic" research areas has been appointed director of academic V.V.Migulin Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Academy of Sciences of the USSR (IZMIRAN) radio physicist, a great specialist in the field of vibration theory, radio wave propagation, radar and IZMIRAN been identified lead organization in this direction activity. As well as the Defense Ministry, to work directly on a working group consisting of 4-5, which was tasked to lead YV Platov The structure of the implementing organizations included Institutes of, the organization of the mentioned organization High School. Their participation in the collection ranged from reports of sightings "UFO" to carry out specific work on the analysis of the collected material and development of physical models of different classes of anomalies.
Despite the fact that by the time the work was built large enough archival material from observations of "strange" phenomena, only a small portion of these posts has been subjected to a retrospective analysis. Basically it was the most well-documented description of various anomalous phenomena. In general, the focus was on the analysis of new messages.
The research program was based on three main principles.
* "Anomalous phenomena" is the real objective fact requires serious research.
* Rejection of a priori solutions to problems.
* Focus on a long and deep study of the question
Despite the fact that in the beginning the work we were trying to avoid prejudice to any hypothesis about the nature of "UFO" is theoretically possible versions of their origin still had some priority.
* "UFO" is a product of human activity, that is, These phenomena are of anthropogenic origin;
* "UFO" are the product of natural processes occurring on the Earth, the Earth's atmosphere and near space — the hypothesis of natural origin of anomalies;
* "UFO" — a manifestation of the extraterrestrial civilizations.
The latest version, although the most intriguing and feverish enthusiasm did not cause, but to exclude it from consideration would be incorrect. A key role in the organization and implementation of the military part of the program has played a document prepared by the prime contractor of the Defense Ministry and approved by the Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces in January 1980, this document, adjusted to all the troops in the form of a directive of the General Staff is a guide for all the major issues of implementation of the research program NCI.
This directive allows the player to actually research programs anomalies used for the benefit of its performance all the huge observation capacity of the Soviet Army. Each serviceman, wherever he may be, unwittingly, became one of the potential of the programs, as in the case of an observation of unknown, unusual, extraordinary phenomena he had to report their observations in writing in the prescribed form and submit these materials superiors. We can say that this directive army was set at 13 years in standby mode of mass observation of anomalies in the areas where military units, ie almost the entire territory of the USSR, and this is in no way about 1/6 of the Earth's land area. Hardly ever, and who either organized such a large study, and almost without any financial investment.
A similar collection of observational data, though not in such a grand scale, and was conducted in the organizations that are closed to the Academy of Sciences. First of all, we should also note a large role in the organization of observations, and the analysis of the collected data of the Institute of Applied Geophysics, representing in Goskomgidromet. The main focus of the "academic" institutions still was on the analysis of the conditions of observation of anomalous phenomena and physical mechanisms of their development. This work was brought experts atmospheric physics, plasma physics, geophysics and geochemistry, mathematics, etc. The result of this work has all the prerequisites to collect enough information about the observations of various anomalous phenomena, its objective analysis and an adequate model of the observed phenomena.
In the course of the program for 13 years received about three thousand reports of sightings of unusual phenomena. Almost all of them have been analyzed and identified a small research group. Most of the posts belongs to the category of mass observations, when the same phenomenon has been described by many independent witnesses. On average, we can talk about the mass observation, when a 7.10 reported in the same episode. In some of the most extensive observations, due to weather conditions, time of events and many other reasons, the number of descriptions of events was 50 or more messages. Thus, for the duration of the project as a whole there were slightly more than 300 events, qualified as unusual or abnormal conditions. Interestingly, of the military units serving the test sites or in the immediate vicinity of the landfill, reports of sightings "UFO" was almost no. Obviously, this is due to the fact that the effects were accompanied by military-technical tests and experiments are well known to those conducting the work to specialists, but are puzzling and are seen as anomalies in people not experienced in these areas of human activity.
Relatively small, as noted above, the number of events reported as abnormal, most likely due to the fact that as collect messages field observations, they were quite skilled test and most of the "discarded" in the field.
Almost all the mass night observation "UFO" unambiguously identified as effects accompanying launches space rocket or testing of aerospace equipment. This identification included establishing a temporary coincidence of observation unusual effects with suitable tests, the spatial correlation of the possible place of the phenomena with the area technical systems and consistent with the observed phenomena operating modes of technical devices. It should be noted that when you launch the rocket and space technology, spillover effects can be observed at great distances (thousands of kilometers and even in other parts of the world) from the starting point, due to the different modes of operation of rocket engines and ignition systems for spacecraft orbit correction .
The main mechanism of this class of phenomena is the scattering of sunlight by gas-dust cloud formed by the combustion of fuel. The most favorable conditions for the observation of these effects are carried out in twilight conditions, when the path of the rocket is in the sunlight, and the observer is in the "night" side of the earth. Depending on the height of the rocket flight, engines, components of fuel, etc., the configuration of a gas-dust cloud and its size can vary widely. Suffice it to say that in some cases the characteristic transverse size of the rocket, "trace" can reach many hundreds of kilometers. Not surprisingly, the singularity of the observed pattern, the possibility of observing the phenomenon in the vast territory, as these phenomena develop at altitudes of more than a hundred kilometers, the absence of sound effects and others are surprising and puzzling the unprepared observer.

Among the most interesting observation "rocket effect" mentioned already mentioned famous "Petrozavodsk" phenomenon due to the launch of an artificial Earth satellite "Cosmos 955" from the Plesetsk cosmodrome. (A number of "extra" effects that accompanied this phenomenon was associated with the failed test launch of a ballistic missile, which was conducted in the same region almost at the same time.)

Mass observation "dirizhableobraznogo" object in the night of 14 to 15 June 1980 in the vast territory of European Russia was due to launch from Plesetsk satellite "Cosmos 1188". Interestingly, this satellite is less than an hour of "heritage" in a completely different part of the world, namely, over South America. Russia has seen gas-dust trail left sustainer engine booster, and in South America cloud associated with the engine upper stage of the launch vehicle at work putting the satellite into orbit. These same phenomena are observing May 15, 1981 — satellite "Meteor-2", August 28, 1982 — "Molniya-1" July 3, 1984 — "Space 1581" and many others.
In some cases, the observations were not related to the launching of satellites and ballistic missiles, both land and sea-based. By the way, these phenomena have been observed quite regularly in the Canary Islands and was accompanied by test launches of missiles from U.S. submarines. It is clear that these effects are fundamentally no different from the "satellite" events.

The second most important class of phenomena perceived by witnesses as a "UFO" is fully consistent with the term "flying object." It is true there should be a quick note — these objects rather than flying, as a "floating" or "drifting" in the atmosphere. This class of phenomena are effects that accompany the launches balloons.
To investigate the status of the various layers of the atmosphere and regular meteorological observations that the whole world ispozuyutsya balloons. Modern sounding balloon is a rubber sheath diameter on the ground about two meters, which are suspended instrumentation. In some cases, they can climb to an altitude of about 30 kilometers, where the diameter increases to almost 10 meters. The launches of these balls are made regularly, their flight range is usually no more than 10-15 miles from the meteorological station, therefore, as a rule, their observation does not cause confusion. But sometimes there are some amazing things.
This episode occurred on June 3, 1982 in Aviation Regiment troops air defense (AD) stationed near Chita in Transbaikalia. It started with the fact that the command post of the country's air defense regiment received an urgent message that patrolling the border with China, the aircraft found at an altitude of about 17 kilometers an unusual object of spherical shape, prepared to attack, during which the object suddenly disappeared. The report stated that the observed spherical object can not be a weather balloon probe, since such objects are well known to the personnel, smaller in size than the observed object, and never rise to such heights. Since the land in the district meeting plane with the ball no residential facilities except the frontier and probes was not, it was decided to check with the weather station. Of a telephone conversation with the chief weather station found that: first, the launch balloon with this weather station is almost identical to the time of the meeting with the defense aircraft unknown object, and second, the shell running the ball proved to be extremely durable and it rose a few kilometers higher than usual. Last reported by the telemetry height of the ball is 16 km.
A similar incident occurred in the aviation defense regiment, stationed on the Chukchi Peninsula, September 13, 1982. Meeting again with an unknown aircraft spherical object at an unusually high altitude in the Bay of Anadyr and unexpected loss of the object. Unlike the previous case consisted in the fact that meteorologists did not know how high they reached launched a weather balloon, as the telemetry refused at the beginning of the flight. It is possible that both balloons were from one "defective" party with a stronger-than-normal shell.
These episodes say at least that even experienced pilots are not immune to errors in estimating the size of the observed objects, the distances to them and their identification with specific events.

For research in the upper atmosphere are used more "serious" cylinders than balloons which may drift at altitudes of more than 40 kilometers long on the various areas of the globe. Flight duration record, set in 1970, more than four years, during which more than a hundred balloon made voyages around the world at an altitude of about 35 kilometers. In addition to the classical spherical tanks rather droplet form, use a balloon with quite amazing views. For example, in France, due to the relatively simple manufacturing techniques have a shell, having the form of a tetrahedron — a regular pyramid. In one case, watching the flight of the balloon during filming in the Baltics has caused real panic among the witnesses.
In some cases, used a cylindrical shell or double acquiring high-altitude view of "dolls". Volume tetraedalnyh cylinders can reach 150,000 cubic meters, which corresponds to the typical size of about 110 meters. Even more impressive spherical tanks, which amount to 500 000 cubic meters and a diameter of 150 meters. It is easy to see that even medium-sized bottle when viewed from a distance of about 100 kilometers is seen as an object that has the size of about 2 arc minutes (about 1/15 the diameter of the full Moon).
Share reports of "UFO" is smaller than the effects associated with the firing and is 10-12%.
For the thirteen years of the program of research of paranormal phenomena a few times instead of fairly ordinary retrospective or operational analysis of observational data had to resort to an urgent investigation into the related observations "UFO" and their likely interference with military units. In all these cases, the reports of sightings "UFO" came to the prime contractor is not normal courier mail, and order transcripts provided urgent reports, ie immediately and report the senior military leadership. The investigation of these events had to take part, and the authors of this article.
First episode occurred on 5 October 1983 in the location of one of the divisions of the Strategic Missile Forces, stationed in Khmelnitsky Ukraine. On this day, with 18 to 22 hours many military divisions and their families, a total of 50 people have witnessed unusual for a colorful light effects. It manifests itself in the fact that the north is high enough above the horizon appeared a few minutes, then disappeared and reappeared similar in shape to the blimp bright glowing objects. Some witnesses claimed to have seen in these objects are dark, like the window spots, of which sometimes stretched to the ground arched, light jet. Described the event, although it was quite impressive and spectacular, would not be the subject of an urgent report to Moscow, if not one of the circumstances. The fact is that during the observation of this phenomenon in the sky on the control panel lights up the division command post control transparency, indicating a fault in the missile launch. After a few tens of seconds, the banner also spontaneously went out, but doubts about the health of the equipment in the combat crew stayed. In this environment, the division commander, decided to immediately report the short-term failure of equipment command post at the command of the General Staff, and link this fault with the appearance in the sky over the location of the unusual luminous objects.
Chief of General Staff, acquainted with the report, ordered to urgently send to the scene Special Commission, including its composition professionals engaged in research of paranormal phenomena. This committee began work in the morning on October 6 and in two hours to determine what rocketeers seen the evening of 5 October. The survey allowed us to determine the direction of the witnesses (almost to the north of the location of parts), in which there were observing a strange phenomenon. The first serious potential "source of UFO" in this area was ground 26 aircraft Air Force in Belarusian Polesie about 400 km from the place of observation. Request for Air Force command center revealed that at this place in time, when there were "anomalous" phenomena of light to do the exercise for setting lighting bombs. Flares (SAB) were dropped from aircraft at an altitude of 10,000 m, after which they descended by parachute providing sufficient lighting large areas for 5-7 minutes. It is these light effects in the night sky over the Belarusian air and ground troops observed missile parts removed for 400 km to the south. Testing of action staged in the Belarusian SAB Aviation landfill made several times a year, as in previous years, and in the aftermath, but only once October 5, 1982, these effects were able to watch at a distance from the site. The horizon line for observers pass over ground at a height of over 12,000 feet, so that the entire trajectory of the SAB and the related phenomena of light is "below the horizon." This fact was very important and interesting, as evidence of the possibility of under certain, probably very rare, conditions in the atmosphere effects superrefraction.
It remains to add that the fault in the equipment of the command post anything to do with the observed phenomena did not have, except that by chance coincided with the time, but it is a coincidence, and the main reason that caused the need for an urgent investigation into the events.
Another episode conditionally combines a number of accidents with aircraft based at the airfield Sts air hub (Voronezh region) in the period 1984-1987. Among the circumstances of these accidents were allocated one — presence in a number of cases in the areas of emergency flights unknown object, notes on your screen airfield radar and visually observed by some cab drivers from their aircraft. Head Borisoglebsk military flight school, most affected by the accident aircraft, he asked that the commissions to investigate the causes of accidents experts familiar with the problem of the "UFO". Since up to now there is no consensus on the role played in these accidents mysterious objects that were observed in the area of flight, we shall assume that these events are not identified.
Above we have only the two most important reasons for the "UFO" — flying high altitude balloons and missile launches. These effects explain most of the observed phenomena (90%). Without any doubt, that the proposed model is not only possible, and we are far from the intention to equate the scheme of development of most of the observed strange phenomena and all possible mechanisms. To construct a fairly complete picture is necessary to develop hypotheses, as diverse, as are the effects.
The results of the study showed that the vast majority of the phenomena perceived by witnesses as something abnormal, are quite understandable nature. They are mostly related to the technical activities of mankind, booming in the last decade, or with rare forms of nature. During the years of the program of studies was collected and analyzed a large amount of reports of sightings "UFO" A physical model of the development of different types of events. Part of the results have been published in a number of journal articles and monographs (most detailed publications: V.V.Migulin, Yu.V.Platov "Abnormal phenomena. As far as they are abnormal?" Science in the USSR, 1985, N 6, p.90- 96, Yu.V.Platov, B.A.Feshin, S.A.Chernous "Abnormal phenomena: Facts and Fiction", Science in the USSR, 1989, N 5, pp. 15-22, Yu.V.Platov, B . V.Rubtsov "UFOs and Modern Science", Moscow, "Nauka", 1999.).
To one of the most important results obtained in these studies, perhaps, is to be attributed not identify most of the observed phenomena, and even the development of physical models of their development, although, in our opinion, in this direction are very interesting results. The most "amazing" is that in contrast to numerous descriptions of various kinds of contacts with aliens, UFO gathered in collections, as part of the project, use of the huge potential of the supervisory army and civil organizations have been received:
* No reports of landing "UFO";
* No reports of contacts with "UFO pilots";
* No reports of kidnappings, "UFO."
This may indicate either that, for some reason, for at least 13 years, the territory of the USSR was closed to extraterrestrial visitors, or the insolvency of the hypothesis of alien origin "UFO." Any serious student of the "problem of the UFO" should at least be considered with this result.
Over recent years, many publications on "UFO problem" has been mentioned "secret KGB files", "secrets of the military operation to capture the UFO", etc. The market is filled with video recordings of these archives. After getting acquainted with them is to separate hands — most absurdly difficult to imagine. In the English language there is a saying: «Somebody is fooling somebody all right», which can be roughly translated as — "be healthy kokoe sell." It seems that it fully reflects the relationship between the authors of these publications and their customers.
Related to the "UFO problem" may be different from the awe of the possibility of an excessive contact with an extraterrestrial civilization, to the denial of the reality of the observations themselves. The results obtained in this work have shown that the study of "anomalous phenomena" are certainly of both scientific and practical interest, but the "hypothesis", or more precisely a legend of the "UFO" as a manifestation of the Earth's extraterrestrial civilizations was completely untenable.
Finally, here's the opinion of one of the researchers, "UFO" R.Kouena that can provide an analysis of eyewitness. "It is very tempting to expose the ear, dissolved UFO enthusiasts that intelligence agencies have an extensive roster of the UFO, which they do not wish to make public. This material, when it becomes available, contains no revelations about the visits of aliens. But it certainly allows such services sift UFO reports to identify possible space or military secrets. To the extent that this process involves classifying technology, these services properly keep the information sober UFO showed that the subject, seemingly stupid, deserves serious consideration. UFOs are real and as important as space launches. "
The authors consider it their pleasant duty to express my gratitude to all observers "anomalous" effect which was carried out the research program. We also wish to acknowledge the great personal contribution to the problem and scientific management of research and academic V.V.Migulina Lieutenant General V.P.Balashova. An active part in the study were Dr. N.V.Vetchinkin, Ph.D. S.A.Chernous, Ph.D. A.A.Plaksin, Ph.D. A.A.Abdulin, Ph.D. V.V.Rubtsov, Ph.D. B.A.Feshin, Ph.D. N.K.Pereyaslova, G.N.Kulikova and many others to list which we simply do not have the opportunity. We are also grateful to our foreign colleagues, communication with them one way or another helped to do the work.

Authors:

CYP-mn. Julius Platov — a leading researcher at the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences. During 1978-1996 he was the deputy chairman of the expert group of the Academy of Sciences on anomalous phenomena.
Ph.D. Boris Sokolov — a retired colonel. From 1978-1989 he. was a research coordinator of anomalies in the Defense Ministry and the Academy of Sciences.

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