9.07.11.V middle zone of European Russia massively old spruce forests are dying as a result of reproduction of bark beetle. Mass death of old spruce in almost all regions of the center of European Russia, and in some regions of the Volga region.
Next year, she will almost certainly cover most of the North West regions of European Russia. Outbreaks of bark beetles can result in the next few years to the shrinkage of several hundred thousand hectares of spruce.
Mass reproduction of bark beetles is explained by the combined action of several reasons — both natural and human activities. Among the major causes of outbreaks of bark beetles are the following:
1. The destruction of forests as a result of the adoption of the new Forest Code in 2006, and based on it of the reform of state forest management. With the new forest legislation in a timely manner to carry out forest management activities to combat the bark beetle (eg, cutting trees and settled them stands) is impossible, and almost no one.
2. Excessive last monocropping (pure stands) ate that in the ripe age are most vulnerable to bark beetles, and which, moreover, the least resistant to the winds, droughts and the like misfortune, after which dramatically increases the number of dead or damaged trees that is the primary mass reproduction beetle.
3. Severe damage to forests in 2008-2010 gg hurricanes, combined with the lack of timely action to clean up the debris of dead spruce. It was massive damage to the spruce forests of wind triggered for mass reproduction of bark beetle in the middle lane, the Volga region and the North-West European Russia.
4. Extremely hot summer and warm autumn of 2010, which led to the rapid development of bark beetle and its appearance of additional generations, resulting in a year in the Central and Volga band was accumulated huge numbers of this pest.
The success of the anti-bark beetle is almost entirely dependent on the accuracy of preventive measures — maintaining optimum in terms of health safety species and age structure integrated into management of forests, timely harvesting bark beetle infested trees and forest clearance of dead wood, suitable for reproduction bark, preventing actions leading to a decrease in biological sustainability of forests.
Effective measures to combat bark beetle at the peak of its mass reproduction does not exist. By reasonable concentration woodworm insecticide resistant, mainly because most of his life takes place under the protection of tree bark, and the emergence of adults beetles summer stretched over time. Special traps and trap trees can catch and destroy part of adult bark beetles, but at very high numbers of beetles are ineffective. Biological products designed to combat the bark beetle, are still in the development stage. Single trees can be saved by treating the trunks and bark beetle insecticide inlets, but large areas can be saved only by the natural enemies of bark beetles — woodpeckers, chickadees, some species of predatory insects and disease. As a rule, massive outbreaks of bark beetles continue for several years, and then gradually fade due to natural causes.
Great importance to combat bark beetle outbreaks have timely liquidation of its mass reproduction, as well as adjoining strips of old spruce forest width of a few tens of meters, in which, as a rule, is most of the pest infested trees and the forest floor where most of the winters bark beetles. Failure to eliminate pockets of mass reproduction of bark beetle infested trees and does not provide for the development of outbreaks of any influence. Existing forest laws, based on the Forest Code of the Russian Federation in 2006, practically does not allow the elimination of mass reproduction of bark beetle outbreaks in a timely manner.
In the period of outbreak bark is extremely important to avoid actions that lead to the weakening of forest, to the emergence of new walls forest adjacent to areas cut down, thus provoking pests. These actions include, among other things, construction of transmission lines and expanding trails, roads and other linear features, cutting in spruce stands, not related to the elimination of bark beetles breeding centers, mechanical damage to trees spruce, their root systems or soil compaction.
It is also necessary to change the approach to reforestation. Landing thickened monoculture spruce clearings for action version of the Rules, restoration is actually a work of restoring forage bark beetle. To reduce the risk of forest destruction in the future need to move to growing mixed stands, at least in those areas where the natural environment is strongly transformed by human activities, and where there is a forest in a constant state of stress.