April 19, 2012 7:52
The event, which we now explain, there were more than 100 years ago, but until now it has not diminished interest not only to specialists, but also for the vast army of amateur astronomy. June 30th, 1908 at 7:00 am local time in Eastern Siberia in the Stony Tunguska River basin observed a phenomenon similar to the fall of the meteorite, wherein a huge scale. That morning, eyewitnesses observed a unique car, which swept across the sky from south-east to north-west. His dazzling trail was visible in a wide area within a radius of 800 km. Duration car was a few seconds, but after his flight in the sky was a giant dust trail, which was observed for several hours.
The phenomenon of car ended colossal explosion forces the echoes of which were heard at great distances. Powerful air wave swept over the surface of the Earth. The shaking of the soil and buildings resembled a strong earthquake. Taiga moaning from the unbearable pain. Seismic stations not only the nearby Irkutsk, but many cities in Western Europe has been registered a seismic wave.
The rare phenomenon was observed on the night of June 30 on July 1. On the vast territory stretching west from the blast, the night almost came. Residents of Tashkent, Saratov, Kazan and other cities and towns looked with surprise at unusually bright sky. Even in Greenwich (England) at midnight you can effortlessly read the newspaper. It is surprising that the east site of the explosion was not observed anything like this: the night was normal without any anomalies.
Naturally, the phenomenon is called "Tunguska event." Unfortunately scientists and luckily inhabitants of Siberia, the epicenter of the phenomenon was in the forest in remote swampy areas. The tsarist government has not found it possible to organize the expedition, and scientists could not conduct research proposed site of a meteorite that is called, in hot pursuit.
Only in 1927, an expedition led by LA Kulik, conducted the first survey. Around the epicenter in the radius of 30 km forest was knocked down. Trunks of trees were bare and burned, branches stripped from them tremendous force. The central part of the surveyed area expedition found many pits like the following fragment of a meteorite impact on Earth's surface. The pits were filled with water, making it difficult to find the fragments themselves. Convinced that a meteorite fell exactly on this surface area, the expedition members were surprised by the lack of a large crater, which necessarily had to be formed in the fall of the body of this magnitude.
Unusual phenomenon of unprecedented scale, accompanied by a "fall of the meteorite," absence of a crater and meteorite samples of matter at the place to be falling filed imagination. Born wildest assumptions to the point. That the phenomenon is associated with landing a huge space ship that crashed and exploded in the atmosphere.
As the public became known physicists discovered new processes and phenomena, Persia "Tunguska" periodically revised. After the terrible events of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were discussed options associated with the explosion of a giant bomb. Do not stay aside the possible annihilation of antimatter, lost in interplanetary space, and more recently in the press repeatedly slipped-art assumption that the Earth collided with a black hole.
Meanwhile, the results of several expeditions, the epicenter of the aerial photography showed no traces of the meteorite body. Discovered in 1927 by LA Kulik funnels were natural formations. Tunguska stories suspenseful plot was ready to stretch to a standstill. The absence of a crater and meteorite samples led to a conclusion that the Tunguska meteorite body was not. What then, if not a meteorite? Maybe the comet?
Indeed, even after LA Kulik's first expedition, suggested that the Tunguska body was just a comet. Previously, some researchers comets also did not rule out the possibility. After serious consideration the idea of cometary nature of the "Tunguska" many strange, disparate facts began to take shape in the links of a legitimate chain.
Academician Fesenkov concluded that "Tunguska meteorite" — an explosion of a comet in the air, which had a dust tail is directed away from the Sun. Dust matter tail ahead of the comet nucleus, has entered the Earth's atmosphere from the southeast and spread to the west, causing a brightening of the night. Despite the fact that the nucleus of the comet was a massive (by some estimates, 1 billion tons), due to the very small matter density (less than the density of water), it was unable to overcome the resistance of the atmosphere and exploded in the air, leaving the earth's surface normal for large meteorites crater. The cause of the explosion was a huge selection of heat and rapid evaporation of the loose material of a comet.
This view is supported by research and Academician GI Petrov and Professor VP Stulova, the results of which imply that the Tunguska body was loose fragile formations resembling snow ball with a diameter of 300 m, of course, the study "Tunguska" continues. We study the properties of the soil, is searching for particulate deposited on the surface after a horrific explosion.
Great contribution to the study of the problem of the Tunguska phenomenon made Fesenkov, KP Florensky, AA Yavnel, Divari, I. T. Zotkin, VF Korobeinikov, P. Chushkin, L. Shurshalov, SS Grigoryan, Bronshten and many others.
Done much Siberian Branch of All-Union Astronomical and Geodetic Society, literally not giving overgrown trail Kulik. Invaluable role of the Academy of Medical Sciences Academician Nikolay V. Vasilyev, for many years generously dividing rebellious fervor of the soul between the realities of big medicine and magic "fairy tale" about the "Tunguska meteorite".
Odioy expedition of Soviet scientists in the area of the explosion were found microscopic beads with an extraterrestrial origin. American chemist R. Ganapathy, in whose possession the Committee on Meteorites of the USSR presented some of the obtained samples, after a careful analysis of the fine came to the conclusion that they are the remnants of a meteorite. This is indicated by a high content of iridium and accompanying nickel and cobalt, which is in this combination are present in meteoritic bodies. Not only is the number of attributes Ganapathy found that the Tunguska body could be a stony meteorite with an initial mass of about 7 million tons and a diameter of 150 meters, which completely destroyed in an explosion in the atmosphere. Scientist calls attention to the remarkable fact, successfully complementing painted them a picture. We are talking about an unusually high concentration of iridium in the samples of fossil ice mined in the South Pole and the associated layer of 1909-1912 years. It is possible that the excess iridium was formed by subsidence of the explosion products in 1908 at the Earth's surface.
Author: BC Getman