PU over-OTP-range Air-C
In the second half of the 1950s. with the beginning of hard work to accelerate the creation of the U.S. strategic nuclear submarine missile system "Polaris" anti-submarine warfare (ASW) of personal prepyadstviya Navy turned into the most important national puzzle USSR. By the end of the decade, the party and the government passed a number of resolutions mandating the creation of new ships and guns PLO.
Along with the work on Conventional anti-gun decision of 20 June 1958 the NII-1 (the State Committee for Defense Technology, or GKOT) wondered development work to create a "depth charge with the special charge" "Whirlwind." It was designed to destroy submarines, reaching depths of up to 400 m at a distance of 4 to 24 km from the firing ship. This work has successfully ended June 12, 1968 on the adoption of anti-weapons complex "Whirlwind" (chief designer — N. Mazur), which were equipped with anti-submarine cruisers, etc. 1123 ("Moscow", "Leningrad") and the first three ships Prospect 1143 ("Kiev", "Minsk", "Novorossiysk").
Anti-missile system RPK-1 "Whirlwind
In addition, the resolution of 1958 GKOT instructed to study the question of the development of the coastal anti-submarine system with deep bomb with a special charge to protect against penetration of enemy submarines in the naval base with the introduction of hydro-acoustic band "Ukhta". Study had to be conducted in relation to the ranges of 50 to 150 km.
The results of the research work under the name "Typhoon", entrusted to the NII-1 (chief designer — N. Mazur), confirmed the possibility of creating a fundamentally missiles for such a system. When equipped with the powerful special charges missiles could be used against enemy surface ships, for example, in order to disrupt the enemy's troops. Taking into account that at the time the plant "Barricades" came the ready 130-mm coastal guns SM-4 and the chief designer of GI Sergeyev knew the specifics of its operation, ordering the Navy to recommend specific management SKB-221 for the creation of a new trigger-shore.
SKB-221 was assigned to R & D KM-3-340-58, "Creating the coast of reactive systems with depth charges from spetszaryadom." The designers faced a study on the level of engineering notes stationary ground-based equipment for missile launch complex "Typhoon". According to the level of technical features of the rocket and ground equipment needed to outshine all the armed coastal complexes.
Stationary launcher BR-219-1
Despite the fact that the scheme stationary basing barrikadtsam had to design for the first time (premature projects concerned drilling systems and artillery systems), the task was performed almost two months.
The theme involved in the department number 6 under the control of VI Heifetz directly — a group BCRomanenko Islands. The report on the implementation of targeted individually themed cards stressed the opportunities for the creation of the mining option for ground-based missiles "Typhoon" (weighing 9 tons) for the purpose of application nestled nuclear attack on enemy targets. But experts at the NII-1 variants rejected mine on the beach because of the tight construction Overhead structures for such a large rocket.
Already in July 1958 barrikadtsami was offered the option of the launcher (PU) BR-219-1, prepared on the basis of research experience CRI-34 (MATSKB, at the present time — LACA), in which did start the installation for the Navy: CM-59 , SM-59-1, CM-59-1Adlya launched cruise missiles KSSCH, SM-64 to start the SAM B-750.
The new version fixed ground launchers (creator — JN Matsapura1) consisted of a base tumbovogo type on which the oscillating part of the premises and personnel. At a height of 5 m was the axis of the guide pins to support a 12 m length of the starting distance is 8 m, weight of the entire structure headed for 48 t
In considering this project was more than just a prirekany to charging of the launcher, because
to become even more gromoz-dkim and signs to the availability of funds overload missiles.
Then the rocket troops, since the role of AD Nadiradze (he joined the Research Institute-1 May 16, 1958 as head of CSC and assistant deputy director for research and development), it was decided to expand the options for missiles with a decrease in weight characteristics. Constructors NII-1 rocket offered "Typhoon-1", weighing 5.5-6 m, and experts at SKB-221 continued their activities in relation to this option, without stopping at the same time to work on the heavy missile launchers. GI Sergeyev immediately offered a mobile version of the CP, and the stationary shaft to perform complex than vertically and horizontally. Agreed to this, but subject to the sequence of developments: the first mobile version of the missile Poodle "Typhoon-1", and later replacement — stationary on a horizontal shaft scheme.
At the end of 1958 was granted 111, which did not provide for the future of the complex binds to a specific site foreshore. GI Sergeyev and executors of the project, including the head of the missile development of the NII-1, VI Eliseev, visited almost all the military units that are supposed to equip the new complex. Studied maps, terrain, location of some bays imaginary enemy that had to be locked in a conflict with minefields with new missiles "Typhoon-1."
At 1959 between NII-1 and plant "Barricades" was awarded the contract, which established the completion of work in May. January 13, 1959 Deputy Head of number 6 OKB-221, GM Belyaev registered the following codes on the development of:
— BR-219 — Fixed PU system "Typhoon";
— BR-221 — transporter-loader-schaya vehicle (TLV) for permanent installation of the "Typhoon";
— BR-222 — mobile launchers of the "Typhoon-1";
— BR-223 — TRV for PU systems "Typhoon-1."
The unprecedented number of complex issues have fallen by the developers. And if you take into account-
manie the event that the subject could distinguish only 6-8 people, it is clear what a burden was placed on each of them.
I must say that even at that time, with the filing of GI Sergeyev's OKB-221 was to specialize in the development of mobile launchers. And now efforts were initially focused on the BR-222 project. As a result, there are two schemes: PU based on the un
usual wheel of a tractor trailer MAZ-537B (VP Tsarev developer), and IP on the same trailer for Caterpillar Tractor AT-T (developer — JN Matsapura).
PU triaxial wheel trailer included the following main elements: a swinging part (developer — IS Efimov) weighing 4800 kg (rail length of 10 m and with a longitudinal groove naveyu length is ensured by passing the yoke missiles); balancing mechanism (creator — F.YA . Larin) and automatic rammer (creator — VG Sorokin).
Together with PU proektirva BR-222, BR-las TRV-223 (creator — OP Medvedev). Chassis was a trailer MAZ-5202, which is located on the platform for a missile. The platform can be deployed and to raise the height of 800 mm with a force of 27 kg on the arm. TRV as well as PU, transported wheel or crawler tractors.
Charging scheme was fascinating. TPM can be fixed relative to the UE not only an angle of 90 °. The combination of axes rocket lying on the TLV, and the guide was achieved by reversing PU platform. This operation was given 5 min. Then carried out with a rocket lifting platform (1 min.) Next rocket fell on the guide, and shall be sent to the consolidation (of loading on the allotted 15 minutes).
PU, TRV and circuit loading suit many. But it was proposed to exclude from the set of the trailer. Testing of the OKB-221 missile deployment "Typhoon", weighing more than 6 tons per chassis was one of the first of similar attempts in the country. In 1955 the joint venture. The queen managed to place its missile 8K11 weighing 4.5 tonnes on the chassis of the JS-2 (MP 2P19). Now the weight of the rocket was almost 2 tons more.
After receiving a positive assessment of the NII-1, barrikadtsy started tackling the tasks. Were offered several options for CP.
Version of the self-propelled launcher designed NK Smolyakova, involves placing artchasti SPU based on the chassis of Kharkov "Object 408".
Version of the self-propelled launcher, as proposed by NK The resin lyakovym, foresaw placing artchasti to "Object 273", which was developed in the KB-2 of the Leningrad plant. Kirov and was intended as a transporter for 2T1 420-mm self-propelled mortar 2B1 "Oka".
But the ability of the chassis "Object 408" and "Object 273" clearly did not meet the placement is so languid shipping (especially regarding options for the BR-222-P). I had to go back again to the rocket least weight.
On the conveyor belt "Object 408" NK Smol'yakov artchast arranged for a rocket under the symbol "Typhoon-IV» (the weight of the missile has been reduced by almost two times). This allowed them to create the launch of PU in all directions.
NK Smol'yakov placed the missile under the name "Typhoon-III» wheeled MAZ-537B, ie Now this is not the case chassis was used tractor as a carrier.
Artchast for missiles "Typhoon-III» was located YN Matsapuroy on the MAZ-529V.
But simple calculations showed that all conceived versions propelled launchers can not withstand enormous loads. I had to re-work the assembly PU trailer.
Version of the trailer with PU for MAZ-537B, was used not only three-axle trailer, and a four, a unique design. It was assumed two positions rocket. Rocket in the stowed position located a bit forward, and on the launch pad had to move her back almost 2 meters This was dictated by the "struggle" with weight and durability PU software at start.
May 12, 1959 held at the NTS OKB-221, which were considered all the options PU complex "Tafun." The approval of the following projects: BR-222-VI and TRV BR-223, developed, respectively, JN Matsapuroy and OP Medvedev. Also in the report was written subsequent technical council:
"… Preliminary design reviewed and compiled a 2-sided act of 15/05/59, the execution of the threads. Preliminary design otsch press on the conclusion of the 1st Office GKOT and SS-1GKOT "3.
In Moscow, consideration of the options set "Typhoon". It is curious that the designers, the NII-1 protected predeskizny. 'Design scheme and completeness of the missiles, and designer of OKB-221 — only a preliminary design.
Therefore in conclusion it was said:
"The results of study of the development of the coastal anti-submarine rocket system with depth charges and the introduction as a means of detecting sonar band" Ukhta "to refer to the organization in the Navy and developers spetszaryada KB-25 …
OKB-221 to submit for approval proposals for the forthcoming implementation of these works on the launch pad. "
It was recommended to further develop mine option, but with the placement of mines not vertically, as already mentioned, horizontally. Studded scheme BR-219-1 performed the designer OP Medvedev. As a result, the horizontal mine came with a small length of 75 m, width in some places reached 18 meters on plots could fit all the elements of the new version.
These elements have studied:
— GM Belyaev — TRV BR-221 ZIL-131;
— NK Smol'yakov — a cart to transport items (lifting speed 0.02 m / s, speed 0.33 m / s);
— VP Tsarev, N. Matsapura, FJ Larin, NI Elanskii, VG Sorokin, IS Efimov — SP;
— VK SOLOSHENKO — the mechanism of movement of roofs (the weight of 40,000 kg, opening time 25 sec).
So Makar, the entire lineup Romanenko BC participated in the design of the horizontal shaft and parts of the launch complex "Typhoon".
This project is also focused on the examination spice NII-1. As recalled later NP Mazur, defense of the project was transferred to the 1st control GKOT. It was accomplished June 9, 1959 he was invited to the meeting, NL Spiritual head of the KB-25 (now — Vserossiiskii Research Institute of Automatics. NL spirits). Finally, it was expected on an operating nuclear mines. Nikolay Leonidovich said about the subsequent: "… No guarantee of accuracy characteristics and particularly the small range does not apply to the introduction of nuclear warhead, much less in combat marine commando. Do not forget that the place of landing not only the coast. This is, first, the cradle of the emergence of life on Earth. Befoul it means to kill myself … ".
The forthcoming discussion analysis showed that the use of spetszaryada with the introduction of rocket launchers
and "Typhoon" is dangerous for both warring parties.
Underwater Explosions could cause significant radioactive areas of infection. In addition, nuclear explosions in the waters adjacent to the naval base, could ruin the days are placed on the sea and on the coast of hydroacoustic equipment (including stationary), also lead to the death of their own ships and vessels caught in the dangerous zone. Accordingly, after consideration of the results in the 1959 preliminary design study of several variants of missiles with a maximum range of different start work on the subject actually ended.
Released in 2003 book AV Be-Selowsky "Nuclear Center (note test nuclear weapons)" opens Zahav on the causes of this solution. In it, as it says, "… Poskolkumy, developers of products with spetszaryadom represented the consequences of the introduction of products with nuclear ammunition is better than the military, security issues, we were very serious. By this we have trained with the first steps of the scientific manager and first chief engineer academician YB Chariton He worked for the scrupulous study of virtually all issues of security on all current cycle of a nuclear weapon, ranging from production at the production plant, operating in the military and beyond. In our operational documentation (ED) has always been the guarantee that the products are not dangerous if the requirements of ED … "
In addition, the creation of the system as a whole, including the tasks of detection and ordering of goals
target designation to combat vehicles complex with time delays which do not entail an unacceptable aging disk imaging, could only be done on a highest level of technology.
So Makar, coastal missile system "Typhoon" to provide depth charges from spetszaryadom did not get a start in life.
What did run out of these study for SRI-1 and OKB-221?
In 1961, the Navy adopted jet bombing Metn installation with mechanical loading, "Smerch-2" and "Smerch-3" burst firing and single. Above them, the designers have worked NII-1 and CRI-34. As for the designer of OKB-221, they would not have to rest. In closing day theme of "Typhoon" was announced to start work on missile complex "Temp." Acquired with all this experience has been very useful.
Silo launcher of BR-219.