Scientists have found that heat waves, tormented Russia last summer, and a monstrous flood, Pakistan has experienced in the same year, have been associated with each other. To be exact, the same atmospheric phenomenon caused us two months to suffer from the heat, and the Pakistanis — from damp. But in the end saved us from the heat it was "moist" Pakistan.
Great Russian natural scientist Mikhail Lomonosov was fond of saying: "If one knead that decrease, then the other is sure to arrive" (actually, it was one of the first formulations of the law of conservation of mass). However, this statement can be cited as an example of any balance model, which is based on the fact that any action on the system generates a mechanism that prevents this attack. And, it should be noted, almost all natural phenomena that we observe can be described with the help of these same balance models.
Get at least an abnormal situation the summer heat, which is about two months tormented Russian citizens in the past year. Then, many people asked, where are the ones left rains, which had put an end to a terrible drought and forest fires. Some thought that they went right on to the other end of the earth and fell as snow in South America (which in that year, as we remember, suffered abnormally cold and snowy winter). However, studies have shown that they are the result of local phenomena such as El Niño, and with our drought quite well, nothing to do.
Missing rains there were much closer, and it … in Pakistan. As we remember, the summer and autumn of last year stood out for the people of this country, too hard — heavy rainfall has resulted in many provinces of Pakistan floods that destroyed hundreds of settlements and claimed the lives of thousands of people. So, if we recall the words of University, it turns out, is something that "departed" we "arrived" in Pakistan. But how could this happen?
Scientists William Lau and Kyu-Myong Kim of Goddard Space Flight Center believe that the blame atmospheric Rossby waves — huge air flow, resulting in lower layers of air envelope of our planet. More precisely, they do not, as a sudden change in their usual route. But let's start from the beginning.
It's no secret that the atmosphere in general, often behaves like a fluid. So, if our planet revolves on idea and its air cover should spin with her in the same direction. However, this does not happen — we know, in any inertial frame of reference (and the Earth are), there is always the Coriolis force — one of the forces of inertia that exists in a non-inertial reference frame because of the rotation and the law of inertia, which is manifested in moving towards a angle to the axis of rotation. In the northern hemisphere of our planet action of this force is directed to the right of the earth's motion, and in the South — to the left.
It is the Coriolis force (as well as other events, such as air friction on a solid surface of the planet and the temperature gradients that cause the colder air masses move toward warmer areas and vice versa) and prevents the uniform movement of the entire atmosphere, together with our planet.
As a result, it forms a stable undulating course, which are called Rossby waves — after the French scientist Carl-Gustaf Arvid Rossby, who described them in 1939. And in the Northern Hemisphere are standard move from the west to the east. Therefore, if these trends are picked up by the North Atlantic humid air masses, they prevent the move to the equator are directly Greenwich, and, pulling them away, shooting diagonally over much of Eurasia.
According to Lau and Kyu, usually in the summer (this jet stream pushes weather fronts through Eurasia in just four or five days. But in July 2010, that did not happen, as Rossby waves, carrying rain, suddenly ran into a powerful obstacle. It appeared to be an atmospheric soliton or standing wave (more on that, see the article "The blocking anticyclone asked Russians to heat") which was named researchers Omega block (for resemblance to the Greek letter above, if you look at his picture from space).
As a result, the jet stream has slowed down and split, and not donesya rains to central Russia, languishing from the warm anticyclone trapped atmospheric soliton.
The rains eventually passed to the south or to the north, and not get it wet earth relying regions under the influence of an anticyclone, dried up, and the transfer of moisture from the soil into the atmosphere has been further slowed. Then a chain reaction — slow evaporation caused a complete cessation of rainfall has become even drier, and as a result the region turned into a kind of "powder keg", which, accordingly, did not hesitate to break out (remember last year's forest fires).
But the unit Omega managed to make a "sweet life" is not only for us but also people in Northern Pakistan. As a result of its activities over the region formed the so-called top-down wind rose, and simply put, a giant funnel, sucking in all the air masses, which are nearby. As a result, the dry and cold air from Siberia, who had just been rushed to Central Russia to push the blocking anticyclone (as he often did in previous years) suddenly changed its course and headed south, to the limits of "pure land" (this is translated from the Urdu word "Pakistan").
However, Pakistan was not limited to the theft of a funnel air from Siberia — she became a drain warm wet mass, who calmly walked, carried away by a monsoon in the Himalayas to the Bay of Bengal. As a result, some of them turned towards the "pure land", and, suspecting nothing, they came down on the dry and cold Siberian front. What then happens, we know very well — hurricanes, accompanied by thunderstorms and torrential rains. It was they who caused the catastrophic floods in northern Pakistan.
However, this is a disgrace, though many disasters caused Pakistanis, however, saved the sweat out a hot Russians. Because of the natural disasters that have raged over the former Kushan Empire, an area of low pressure increased, with the result that the power of Omega off the ground and swam toward Central Asia (in other words, a huge air funnel over Pakistan, like a vacuum cleaner, start and suck it.)
Passage of Rossby waves over central Russia has rebounded, and by the end of August, tormented region attended the long-awaited rains. And later came to Central Asia blocking anticyclone pushed out moist air masses from Pakistan to the Indian Ocean.
As a result, balance model has worked and this time — Omega Block has created a force that eventually forced anticyclone held them to leave, and he, in turn, displaced, and destroyed this force. All due back "to normal." However, scientists still can not say whether it is possible in the near future repetition of this scenario, the weather, since the end of unknown reasons why the unit was able to firmly establish the Omega over Russia.
We can only say that if this happens again, then after a while Pakistan will help us again. And then — and we told him.