Under the guise of the need to provide non-threatening way to own one of numerous colonies, India, the British have found methods to weaken Russia. This behavior was motivated by fears unfounded by the way, on the distribution of Russian influence in the Ottoman Empire. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire, concluding a contract in which England has acquired the right to trade on its territory, has caused stagnation of his industry and turned into economically dependent government. This area has become a lucrative market for British products, because the British had a lot of enthusiasm in preserving their own influence and reasonably, fear of penetration into the region growing Russian bourgeoisie. In addition, not impressed by the British and the presence of the Russian Federation in the Baltic.
In schools, teachers, unfortunately, occasionally illuminated programm Palmerston, which was made before the declaration of war by Turkey Russian Empire. If we talk briefly, the main aim of England was the rejection of its Baltic territory of the Russian Federation, also of Finland, Aland Islands, the Crimea and the Caucasus. In addition, the British in their own development meant some fundamental geopolitical configuration of the map of Europe.
France also was not a normal doll and had its own interests in the military conflict. In 1-x, the new ruler Napoleon III was not recognized by Nicholas I, in view of the fact that the dynasty of Napoleon as a result of the war was declining to inherit the throne. The new French government was outraged deliberate false appeal Russian monarch and thirsty for revenge. In addition, to strengthen their own precarious situation of the French monarch on the throne had to get revenge for the defeat of its predecessor.
So Makar, the war with Turkey was sealed for a long time before it started. The occasion was a dispute about the keys of the Church of Christ's birth in the old town of Bethlehem.
Ground forces under the command of Menshikov gave battle to the English and French regiments on the way to Sevastopol on the river under the name Alma. But the forces were unequal. Russian Army numbered only 33 thousand soldiers, while the allies landed in Yalta about 64 thousand people. In addition, the impact in the battle, and an advantage in weaponry by the Allies. Firing range rifled muskets superior ability to Russian shotgun in 4th times because the melee for the commander Menshikov was inaccessible. Many military historians refer to the management style of Prince bestalantnym, as its solutions not only did not bring any improvement in the position of Sevastopol, but do not even have caused significant losses of the Allied armies.
Battle for Sevastopol began on October 5 1854. The allies stormed city from the sea and thrown off the walls of the seaside town of more than fifty thousand cannon. In this battle, the military catastrophically died Admiral Kornilov. Sparkling military chief offered a very exciting version of the defense. Aware of the paucity and weakness of the Russian fleet and the defending Sevastopol courts, he invited them to join battle with the enemy ships and by all means go to boarding, exploding with all this own judgment. So Makar, Kornilov meant cause such damage to the Allied fleet, after which all subsequent operations may not be possible. But such a plan has torn Menshikov and ordered to flood all the ships stationed in Sevastopol, and the crew to throw the defense of the fortress. Kornilov was obliged to obey, but even having lost the ability to undermine the combat power of the enemy fleet, he organized an effective defense with nightly incursions, mine warfare and experienced the introduction of the fortress artillery. Sudden death on the Malakhov Kurgan Sevastopol deprived of professional commander, which is reflected in the organization of the upcoming defense. Kornilov took place more professional and beloved fighters Admiral Nakhimov.
The defense lasted 349 days, during which manifested the courage not only the soldier and sailors, and the ordinary inhabitants of the town. At the west side of the city was well fortified. The fortress had a 610-to five guns and a massive bastion, but from the land Sevastopol was vulnerable. This line is included only 134 guns of different calibers. In addition, the northern part of the town was protected only vosmiugolnym fort, the disposal of which there were only 50 guns.
A large role in the heroic resistance of the town played a dedication of its inhabitants, which are intensively involved in the construction of fortifications. For example, one of the batteries had her maiden title, because it was built only female hands.
First fight was brutal, it was conducted not only from the sea, and from the land. But, in spite of an advantage, the enemy could not break the resistance and, in addition, suffered considerable loss, which complemented the raging storm on the Black Sea. The result of the first day or so was that the Allies had to send some ships to Constantinople and to abandon further attacks Sevastopol from the sea. Batteries with sushi and were not depressed, although the enemy had 10-fold an advantage on the number of guns. The Russian gunners tried to shoot as often as possible, with the result that nearly ripped themselves guns, but the attack was repulsed brilliantly. Yet, durin
g the battle began to be felt inadequate military equipment, shortage of ammunition. The left wing was severely damaged by artillery of the British, but the return fire continued. Allied army had been waiting all day for the ability of the assault, was not able to carry it out completely, all the allies were obliged to withdraw. A couple of times tried to storm the French and the British nepokorlivy bastion, but even NIGHT MODE Russian soldiers fought furiously and reflect the attack. Significant contribution to the defense brought steamboats plying with the proud name "Chersonese", "Crimea" "Thunderer" and others. The missing ammunition complement ordinary pebbles and indomitable will of the Russian soldiers, typical of the Slavs, which led to a nightmare enemy. The losses in the middle of Russian fighter were enormous and were about 1,250-person, but then began a long siege of the town, to take which one day could not three massive power.
After the battle, the Russian soldiers made a truly magnificent act: they crawled out of hiding and tried to help the wounded. The Allies responded to this action in different ways. If the French were silent and even laudatory waving brave, then the British, despite their own suffering the wounded, opened fire on them.
During the attack the town Russian Army headed for 65 years and thousands of would enter into a confrontation with the enemy. Military commanders and offered to act decisively break the property security forces besieging the city, but Prince Menshikov again showed caution and only sent one division to capture a few redoubts. The detachment was very small, because even taking the British redoubts and causing considerable loss, he could not keep busy altitude. Responsibility for trouble October 13 military analysts absolutely lozhut indecision and a lack of faith Menshikov.
October 20 started firing again fortresses. The planned assault on November 6, was torn down approach 2-divisions, with the result that the number of Russian army was already 85 thousand and represented a severe threat to allied forces. In addition, the city was cut off from the world at all, it is associated with the Russian army Semfiropolskoe direction.
October 24 Menshikov still dare to go in coming, but the management was so bestalantnym and ensuring good that Russian troops after a bloody clash had to move again. By the onset of winter in the ranks of the Russian epidemic began. Again there was a failure to provide Menshikov fighter essential medicines, clothes, and even the usual food and ammunition. Exclusively in February next year, Prince was, after all, is replaced by Gorchakov, who had prior experience of management of the Danube army.
At this time the defenders of Sevastopol began active combat with the enemy by night raids. There are their heroes, especially valiantly and skillfully deal damage to the enemy. In the middle names hitherto known Dimchenko, Shevchenko, Zalivshin and many others.
Samples capture the heights of the Russian troops lasted with alternate success. After the change of Menshikov began a new step in the confrontation over Sevostopol. The Russian army began to form more defensive zone, complementing its guns. Redoubts erected more than once tried to take the allies, but whenever faced with dedication fighter. In April, the enemy again began heavy fire from all the guns on campus. The calculation was limited to the incessant fire on the walls of Sebastopol nepokorlivogo for 3 days. But neither the first nor the second day of return fire intensity did not subside. On city the enemy has released about 168 thousand shells, and in return received a little less than 88.5 thousand. The assault was postponed to mid-April, but the entire fortress ammunition was exhausted. Sevastopol was in need of restoration of ammunition.
In the UK and France unsuccessful trials take Sevastopol caused indignation and outrage still storm of negative public sentiments, which led to a change of control of the military, but also for the new command samples were inconclusive. In May, the number of the besiegers have gained 200 thousand, against 70 thousand Russian soldiers, of which only a little more than half of the real perceived role in the defense.
May 25 started firing again, which lasted for 5 days. Despite the fact that the return fire from the walls of Sebastopol now died down, take the city again failed. Noticeable contribution to the defense brought the Russian shelf.
June 5 again the bombing, which inflicted devastating damage to the fortifications of the town. But once again attack the allies was without result, because Russian soldiers preferred to breathe and fought even wounded, but did not give up. Damage repaired in rather short time the most, thanks to not only the military, and local residents. Sevastopol showed indescribable courage and valor. But on June 30, Russian forces have suffered the most terrible loss — died from a fatal wound in the head, Admiral Nakhimov. Professional commander, because of the skill and courage which so long kept this nepokorlivy and proud city, left the world of the whistling of enemy bullets.
Gorchakov was indecisive and now. August 5 enemy again began to fire, and on 24 August, the sixth bombing. The forces besieged exhausted, the soldiers died, but did not give up. But the final siege was already a foregone conclusion. August 27th is actually quite destroying all the fortifications and a fighter, the Allies occupied the southern part of the town. The Russian army has focused on the North side and was ready for the upcoming battle. Inhabitants over to the belligerent and not provided the least resistance, than the men. The losses of the enemy were so high that the command, fearing for the loss of the already achieved success, not solved for the coming offensive. Quest has entered into a stage of lull.
In 1856, peace talks, and in late April, a contract was signed for Peace in Paris.
Actions Sevastopol showed the world how brave and selfless Russian fighters and residents. One nepokorlivy city three military powers, owning the numerical advantages, as well an instrument, could not take a period of eleven months. It was a real shame for the European powers and the fight of the Russian people.