Nestor Makhno: the father of the farm liberty and ideological anarchist or a bandit?

Nestor Makhno: the father of peasant liberty and ideological anarchist or a thug?This man's life is divided into three parts. 1st — from birth to imprisonment in jail for anarchist activity, the second — four years of continuous battles, campaigns and healing from numerous injuries, and the third — thirteen-year stay in a foreign land.

Nestor Makhno was born October 26, 1888 in Polye in the family of a former serf, the groom. Witnesses claimed that during the christening robe of the priest caught fire, and he angrily exclaimed that the baby will grow, "the thief, what light is never seen." If we take into account all these elements, there is nothing unusual in the fact that out of the Maltz went past master of cavalry raids and battles.

Study in the County school was short-lived, and in 10 years, Nestor began work — first as a father, with the horses, and then as a laborer. Then his fate influenced the revolution of 1905, which caused quite a palpable wave entrainment ideas of anarchism. Young workers, disappointed in the activities of the Social Revolutionaries and the Bolsheviks were in the ranks of the anarchist movement, the center of which was LOTS (Dnepropetrovsk).

Being a member of the anarchist "Union of poor grain growers' in Polye guy did not have long. On the revolutionary activities were necessary funds because the opposition royal regime was producing them with the expropriations — armed robbery companies, banks, post offices and general bourgeois. After the police were killed and postmen, Nestor in August 1908 he was arrested, and was waiting for a death sentence. My mother wrote a letter to the revolutionary mother of Tsar Nicholas II — Maria Fyodorovna, with a request to review the case, as Nestor Then the number of minors — he was not yet 21 years old.

Servitude guy serving in the Metropolitan center bullpen — Butyrka. In the middle of political prisoners has been a lot of teachers and students in political debates with which it forms the their understanding of the world. In the chamber the young prisoner was nicknamed "Humble", as his comrades did not once heard from him: "I'm a stately man!" In Butyrskoj bullpen, he spent seven years and was released on February Revolution of 1917.

In March, Nestor returned to his native village — Polye. He led the local council and the union of metalworkers and woodworkers, he co-founded the Peasant Union and organized a detachment of farm self-defense. And in 1918, the "Free Walk-Polish Republic" had his own rebel army. Makhno and his sworn brothers were fighting the war with all who came to conquer the steppe Zaporozhye — Austro-German army, Hetman Skoropadskim, Denikin and Wrangel, the Bolsheviks, and the director of the Entente. And not only to them.

Taking LOTS, Nestor Ivanovich together with his staff on the joys of a very drunk, and then began to play in a city park. Specifically: Makhno, sitting on swings and roundabouts, opened fire on the citizens, who had the misfortune not to be dressed like a proletarian and walk on that day in the park. Well, while others staged a pogrom in the town. Later sober Makhno shot several 10-s most vicious thugs. Certainly not from their own environment.

First steps of the new-born republic was interrupted by a weary tramp of the Austro-German army, which Skoropadskyi invited to fight the Bolshevik troops, attacked from the north. In late April, after Makhno vyshybli of Ukraine, he through Rostov-on-Don, Saratov and Samara, reached Moscow. There he met with Lenin and Sverdlov, who is made a great memory (greater than Lenin on Makhno). The fact of meeting Russian historians have long suppressed. Constructive conversation came out. Nestor motivate Lenin's attitude to anarchism, and Lenin — can be used as anarchists in the struggle against the Germans and Skoropadskim.

A larger memory on Makhno made by the meeting with the anarchist theorist Peter Kropotkin. He answered all the questions that interested and said goodbye to the words that Nestor remember for a lifetime, "The dedication, fortitude and faith on the way to overcome all of the task." Secretly returned to Polye, Makhno began an armed struggle against the death squads of the hetman and German troops. To him were farmers, unhappy with the return of the landlords, the elimination of democratic institutions, requisition. After the 1st victorious battle October 10, 1918 the rebels dubbed own commander of thirty "father."

Nestor Makhno: the father of peasant liberty and ideological anarchist or a thug?

Makhno won thanks to a unique strategy and ingenuity. He first thought of to put on a young spring leaves familiar with German colonists truck gun "Maxim". Thus was born the famous "tachanka." Having a rotatable front axle and drawn by four horses, it was a harsh force in combat. Military science since then did not know of such opposing cavalry: flying towards the enemy's cavalry, and behind it — hundreds of machine-gun carts. Simultaneously, on command, the cavalry went out to the side — and crashed into the wall of the enemy machine-gun fire. Machine-gun regiments were quite effective in controlling the Don and Kuban cavalry Denikin and Wrangel.

Twice a combat Old Man (Old Man) Makhno was an ally of the Red Army. A June 4, 1919 in Polye even granted Klim Voroshilov, so personally rewarding Nestor Order of Red Banner number 1. Twice he had been outlawed, and his troops tried to kill him. Protecting farmers, he opposed the surplus, self-will "check" and the commissioners. The document adopted at the congress of representatives of farmers in Polye, it was said: "The Soviet government is trying their orders to take away their freedom of local councils … We have not elected commissioners are looking for work councils and inhuman crack down on unnecessary. The motto of the dictatorship of the proletariat, in practice, means the monopoly of one party. "

In autumn 1919, the number of units under dark Makhno flags have gained 100 thousand people. That's when he made an alliance with Petlyura, and his shot in the back of Denikin's army to a large extent decided the fate of a snow-white movement. And in year He has promoted the Bolsheviks to take Crimea: Makhno first crossed the Siwash, and immediately after This Reddish Army start a war against them. Over the next 10 months Makhno executed military campaigns in the Sea of Azov, the Don and the Volga region, having lost a large part of their own troops.

With the defeat of Denikin and Wrangel Reddish Army threw all his might to Makhno. Having experienced defeat, Makhno August 28, 1921 with the remnants of his own troops — a detachment of 77 people crossed the Dniester River in Romania. He lived in Bucharest, and later in Warsaw and, in September 1923, was arrested on charges of plotting a rebellion in western Ukraine, but justified by the tribunal. After wandering in Poland and Germany lived in Torun, and in April 1925 he moved with his wife and daughter in Paris, where he worked until there were forces turner, a printer, a shoemaker.

Nestor Ma
khno died in Paris on 25 July 1934. His body was cremated and buried in the cemetery of Pere-Lachaise cemetery, in the wall of the columbarium, under number 6686 — close to the Paris Commune.

Long time of Makhno fashioned film-chieftain, unrestrained in fury, unpredictable, capable only of foolish behavior, or in any way connected with the people. What was he in reality? Bandit? Then why he had the support of the local population?

All remains a mystery. If you manage to solve the mystery of Nestor Makhno, means will be found once the key to the stories of our past, and maybe future.

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