Nicholas Maliszewski Polish captivity: 10 killed as of thousands of Russian

Nicholas Maliszewski Polish captivity: a destroyed tens of thousands of RussianThe problem of mass death of Red Army soldiers who fell in the captivity during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-1920., a long time has not been studied. Since 1945, she and most politically suppressed by the target judgments — the Polish People's Republic was an ally of the Soviet Union.

Changing the municipal system in Poland in 1989 and perestroika in the Soviet Union made the conditions under which the historians were finally able to go to the dilemma of the death of Red Army prisoners in Poland in 1919-1920. November 3, 1990 the first and last president of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev gave an order, which instructed the Academy of the USSR, the USSR Prosecutor's Office, the Ministry of Defense, the Committee of State Security of the USSR ", together with other agencies and organizations to carry out April 1, 1991 research paper on identification of archival material relating to the events and facts from the history of Soviet-Polish bilateral relations, which ultimately harmed by the Russian side. "

According to the disk imaging famous lawyer of Russian Federation, Chairman of the Security Committee of the State Duma of the Russian Federation V.I.Ilyuhina (at the time — Head of Department for Supervision over the implementation of laws on state security of the Prosecutor General of the USSR, member of the board of the Attorney General and the senior assistant attorney general of the USSR), this work was carried out under the control of the head of the Central Committee of the CPSU internationality V.M.Falina. Appropriate materials were stored in the building of the Central Committee of the CPSU on the old square. But after the events of August 1991, they Tipo "disappeared", and future work in this direction has been discontinued. According to the testimony of the doctor of historical sciences A.N.Kolesnika, Falin vorachival lists of names of those killed in Polish concentration camps of the Red Army since 1988, but, in the words of V.M.Falina, once in August 1991 in his office broke "rioters "he collected lists all the volumes were missing. And the employee who worked on their drawing, was killed.

Yet, the problem of the death of prisoners of war have lured to the attention of historians, politicians, journalists and municipal leaders Russian Federation and other republics of the former Russian Union. An event that happened at the time of the secrecy with disaster Katyn, Copper, and other places Starobelska execution of Poles, "gave this natural step visibility Russian researchers counter-propaganda campaign, or, as it came to be called, 'anti-Katyn."

Featured in the press facts and materials of steel, the views of some researchers and scientists, evidence that the Polish military authorities, violating international legal acts, regulating the conditions of detention of prisoners of war, caused Russian side of the great moral and material damage, which is still to be determined. In this regard, the General Prosecutor's Office appealed to the Russian Federation in 1998, at the appropriate state bodies of the Republic of Poland with a request to open a criminal investigation into the death of 83,500 Red Army prisoners in 1919-1921.

In response to the appeal of the Attorney General and Minister of Justice of Poland Hanna Suchocka categorically stated that "… the investigation of the Tipo, the extermination of the Bolsheviks captured in the war of 1919-1920., Which asks of Polish Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation, not will be. " Refusal H. Suchocka proved that Polish historians "reliably established" death 16-18 thousand prisoners of war because of "the general post-war criterion of" the existence in Poland "death camps" and "extermination" is not out of the question, as "No special actions aimed at the extermination of the prisoners have not been undertaken." In order to "close the" question of the death of Red Army General Prosecutor's Office of Poland proposed to make a joint Polish-Russian group of scientists to "… a survey of archives, the study of all the documents in the case and the preparation of the respective publication."

So Makar, the Polish side qualified the request of the Russian side as an illegal and refused to accept it, although the fact that the mass death of Russian prisoners of war in the Polish camps by the Attorney General of Poland was found. In November 2000, the other day visit to Warsaw, Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Igor Ivanov Polish media including alleged that Polish-Russian talks dubbed the problem of death and the Red Army POWs, actualized through publications in the Kemerovo governor A.Tuleeva "independent newspaper".

In the same year, was created by Russian commission investigating the fate of the Red Army, taken in Polish captivity in 1920, with the role of representatives of the Ministry of Defence, the Foreign Ministry, the FSB and the Russian Federation archive service. In 2004, on the basis of a bilateral agreement on 4 December 2000 was made the first joint attempt historians 2-states to find the truth on the basis of detailed archival research — first, Polish, because the actions occurred largely in the Polish countryside.

The result of the joint work was the publication of a large Polish-Russian collection of documents and materials "Red Army soldiers in Polish captivity in 1919-1922 gg.", Allowing to understand the event of death of the Red Army. Prepared a review of this collection astrologer Alex Commemorative — Commander of the Polish Cross Awards (awarded by the President of Poland 4.04.2011 Komorowski "for special awards for the dissemination of the truth about Katyn").

At the current time, Polish historians try to present a collection of documents and materials "Red Army soldiers in Polish captivity in 1919-1922 gg." as a specific "indulgences" for Poland in the matter of the death of the 10-s of thousands of Russian prisoners of war in the Polish concentration camps. States that "the agreement reached on the number of researchers who died in Polish captivity … Red closes the possibility of political speculation on the topic, the problem goes into the category of purely historical …".

But this is not the truth. Read that the consent of the Polish and Russian collectors "in the number of Red Army soldiers who died in the Polish camps from epidemics, hunger and languid test content" achieved more in advance.

In 1-x, for a number of qualities representation of researchers 2-states severely parted, and thus the results were published in the general collection, but with different intros in Poland and Russia. February 13, 2006, after a telephone conversation coordinator of the international project "The truth about Katyn" historian S.E.Strygina with one of the collectors, Russian historian N.E.Eliseevoy, it turned out that "in the process of working on a collection of Polish archives revealed much more than the official documents of extrajudicial execution of Polish prisoners of war Russian Red Army soldiers. But specifically in itself collection included only three of them. On the other found documents about the executions were lifted up to the currently stored in the Russian military municipal archive. During the preparation of the publication There are very severe contradictions in the position of the Polish and Russian sides. (a fi
gurative expression N.E.Eliseevoy "… it came to blows"). As a result, these differences could not remove and had to do two fundamentally different entry to the collection — from Russian and from the Polish side, similar to that of joint publications is a unique fact. "

In-2, between the Polish members of the group collectors and Russian historian G.F.Matveevym survived a huge difference on the number of Red Army prisoners. According to calculations by Matveeva, remained unclear the fate of over 11.9 thousand prisoners who had not died in the camps, and did not return to Russia. In general, almost Matveev pointed to uncertainty of about 50 thousand people due to: under-Polish historians number of Red Army prisoners, and together with it the number of deaths of prisoners; discrepancies in the data from the Polish and Russian documents cases of execution of Polish prisoners of war the Red Army on the spot, without sending them to labor camps for prisoners of war; incomplete account of the death of the Polish prisoners of war; questionable data from the Polish wartime documents.

B-3, the second volume of documents and materials to the dilemma of the death of Polish prisoners of concentration camps, which was to be released soon after the first, has not been published until now. A "one that was posted lies forgotten in the Main directorate of municipal archives and the Federal Archival Agency of Russia. And no one is in a hurry to get the documents from the shelf."

B-4, according to the views of some Russian researchers, "despite the fact that the book" Red Army soldiers in Polish captivity in 1919-1922. "Drawn up by the dominant worldview of Polish historians, most of its documents and records show such a purposeful barbarity of wild plant and cutthroat attitude to Russian prisoners of war, that the transition to this prepyadstviya "discharge purely historical" is not out of the question! Moreover, placed in a collection of documents conclusively demonstrate that the Russian Red Army prisoners of war, first ethnic Russian and Jewish Polish authorities pursued a policy of extermination by hunger and cold, whip and bullet ", ie "Evidence of such a targeted wild plant and ruthless barbarity against a Russian prisoner of war, that should be similar to qualify as war crimes, murder and fierce appeal of prisoners of war with the elements of genocide."

C-5's, despite the Soviet-Polish conducted research and publications are available on the problems, the state of documentary base on this issue as before is that no clear data on the number of Red Army soldiers killed simply missing. (Do not hunt believe that the Polish side they also "lost" as it was made with the documents on the Katyn events Tipo acquired from Russian archives in 1992, after the publications appeared that these materials — made in years " adjustment "fakes).

Tezisno situation with the death of Red Army looks followed properly. As a result, Poland started in 1919 by the Russian Federation against the Russian war, the Polish army had captured more than 150 thousand Red Army soldiers. All in the totality of political prisoners and interned civilians by persons in the Polish concentration camp prisoner and turned over 200 thousand Red Army soldiers, civilian officials, Whites, anti-Bolshevik fighters and nationalist (Ukrainian and Belarusian) formations.

The Polish captivity in 1919-1922 gg. followed by the Red Army destroyed the main methods: 1) the mass killings and executions. The main conclusion to the concentration camps of: a) the destroying of court, leaving the wounded on the battlefield without the provision of medical care and creating the disastrous conditions of transportation to places of detention, and b) executed by sentence of various courts and tribunals, and c) were shot in the oppression of insubordination.

2) The creation of unbearable criterion. In the main concentration camps in the very means of: a) abuse and beatings, and b) starvation and exhaustion) of cold and diseases.

Second, the Commonwealth has made a big "archipelago" of the 10-s of the concentration camps, stations, prisons and fortified casemates. It is situated on the territory of Poland, Belarus, Ukraine and Lithuania, and included not only the 10's concentration camps, including the opening names in what was then the European press "death camps" and the so-called internment camps, which are mainly Polish authorities used in the main camp, the Germans and the Austrians built during the First World War, such as Strzalkowo, Shiptyurno, Lancut, Tuchola, and the bullpen, marshalling concentration stations, points of concentration and various military facilities like Modlin and Brest Fortress, where it was immediately four concentration camps.

The islands and islets of the archipelago were located, including a Polish Belarusian, Ukrainian and Lithuanian towns and villages and were called Pikulitse, Korosten, Zhitomir, Alexandrov, Bows, Isle-Lomzhinsky, Rombertov, Zdunskaya Will, Torun, Dorohusk, Plock, Radom, Przemysl, Lviv, Fridrihovka, Zvyagel, Dabie, Demblin, Petrokov, Wadowice, Bialystok, Baranovichi Molodechino, Wilna, Pinsk, Ruzhany, Bobruisk, Grodno, Luninec, Volkovisskij, Minsk, Pulawy, Povonzki, Rivne, stry, Kovel … This also should include the so-called work teams, working in the environment and nearby landowners that were formed from prisoners, the death rate among which regularly exceed 75%. More lethal concentration camp for prisoners were placed on the ground in Poland — Strzalkowo and Tuchola.

First, the 1920, the Polish authorities tried to divert public attention from the mass death of Russian prisoners of war because of the merciless appeal, turned his attention to the maintenance of the Polish prisoners of war in Russian captivity. But the comparison was very profitable for the Russian side. Despite the much more languid conditions — Plainclothes war, foreign intervention, devastation, famine, mass epidemics, lack of funds — the Polish prisoners of war in Russia were even more comfortable for the survival criteria. In addition, the content of supervised relatives of senior Polish-Bolshevik like F.Dzerzhinskogo.

Now the Polish side recognizes the mass death of Polish prisoners of concentration camps. But tends to downplay the figure reflects the actual number of those killed in captivity. This is accomplished, inter alia, using the sense and replacement.

In 1-x, the number of commitments in captivity Red significantly understated, in order to reduce the final number of fatalities. In-2, when counting the dead prisoners is concerned only about the victims of the prison. So makarom not counted for about 40% of prisoners of war who died before the conclusion of the concentration camps — specifically in the field or during transport to the concentration camps (and out of them — back to their homeland.) B-3, is concerned only with the death of Red Army soldiers on the outside of the range of the White Guards who died in captivity, the men of anti-Bolshevik and nationalist forces and their family members as political prisoners and interned civilians person (supporters of Russian authorities and the refugees from the east) .

Overall Polish captured and interned killed more than 50 thousand lives Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian prisoners: about 10-12 thousand Red Army soldiers were killed before the conclusion of the concentration camps, about 40-44 thousand in detention (about 30-32 thousand Red Army soldiers, plus 10 -12 thousand civilians and fighters of the anti-Bolshevik parties and nationalist groups).

Death 10 s of thousands of Russian prisoners and death Poles at Katyn — these are two different problems that are not related among themselves (except for the fact that in both cases we are talking about the death of people). Mass death Russian prisoners of war is not a taboo in modern Po
land. Its just try to file a so-so as not to discredit the Polish side.

In Russia, Belarus and Ukraine theme Katyn mass of propaganda since the late Soviet times, and the death of 10-s of thousands of Polish citizens in concentration camps, almost nothing is clear. Now the main, the general problem of research Katyn and 'anti-Katyn "is that Russian historians seek out the truth, and polish — for the benefit of their own country.

Since silencing problems obviously does not contribute to their solution, we would like to encourage not only the historians and Russian astrologers who were awarded the Polish Cross "for Katyn", and lawyers in Poland and Russia hold a joint full and impartial inquiry into the fate of the "disappeared" Polish captivity in the 10-s of thousands of Red Army soldiers. Certainly, the Polish side has the full right to investigate the death of all the events of their own citizens in the Katyn. Yes, and its eastern neighbors have the same right to investigate the events of the death of Red Army soldiers in Polish captivity. And on the drawing, more precisely, the restoration of already existing user-1990s. lists of the dead in Polish concentration camps citizens. Run this process can be resumed work of the joint committee of scientists, which is formally no one has blossomed. In this case, to include, besides Russian and Polish historians and legal scholars, representatives of Belarusian and Ukrainian sides. Also worthy of attention offers Russian bloggers on the implementation date of the official commemoration of the Red Army soldiers who died in Polish captivity in the years 1919-1922 and Kemerovo Governor Aman Tuleyev — the development of Russian State Institute of memory that would investigate crimes committed, including by foreign land, against Russian and Russian people.

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