Nicholas Maliszewski: Zapadnorusizm as ideology revival of the Russian world

Nicholas Maliszewski: Zapadnorusizm as ideology revival of the Russian worldBackground

Although some public body has the ideological and semantic kernel, which gives him the opportunity to study and philosophical permanent updating energies of existence. Around it concentrates politics, economy, culture of a society. All this causes the value, volume, and multiple aspects of the strategic relevance of the topic "meaning construction" and designing their own historical destiny. In this case, not only in historical and theoretical, but also in political terms applied. Because the material — only the first in a series of publications devoted to the ideological currents of the Russian western world.

The territory of today's Ukraine and Belarus, or, as it was called in the pre-Soviet historiography of the Western Russia in the centuries transformed into a kind of civilizational and cultural borderlands of Russian and Western mirov. Then there were some ideological currents. In the historical and chronological terms of the oldest and deepest of them became zapadnorusizm, received a powerful impetus to the formation of a period of disunity and religious and ethnic discrimination of the population of today's Belarusian and Ukrainian lands. This outlook generated by the Orthodox Church, rooted at the gene level rises to the Kievan Rus' and is associated with ideas and projects revival of unified politically and economically strong Russian state.

Activities and practical nuance

In practical terms it was the countless manifestations of years of struggle Protz today Belarusians and Ukrainians for their self — an opportunity to be themselves, with the Russian character, sometimes just for the possibility of identity themselves as Russian people for their right to freedom and the unity of the Orthodox Faith. Ranked Among the more significant events of this struggle can be identified:

— confrontation between the Crusaders and the expansion of the Western "Drang nach Osten" (XIII-XV centuries.)

— attempt to combine the Rus Prince Andrei of Polotsk (XIV c.)

— long struggle for the unity of the Eastern and Western Slavs holy Prince Theodore of Ostrog, the knight and his associates (XV c.)

— Lofty proclamation Duchy of the Russian capital in Polotsk (1432-1435 gg.)

— repeated samples of its revival "above" the descendants of Rurik and Gediminas and nobility majestically Duchy of Lithuania and the Russian Samogitian (XV-XVI centuries.) and the "bottom" — the Cossacks and peasants (XVI-XVII centuries.)

— rebellion and the national liberation struggle of the popular masses and the Cossacks (XVII-XVIII centuries.)

— activities of Russian Orthodox Western church brotherhoods, their opposition to the expansion of Catholicism, polonization and forced unification (called the union) of the Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic (XVI-XVIII centuries).;

— the dissident movement in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (XVII-XVIII centuries.)

— depolonizatorskuyu and educational activities Russian governors and managers (XIX c.)

— activities of religious and secular intellectuals of the North-West region of the Russian Empire, who stood at the origins of the academic science of the future of Belarus and Ukraine (XIX-XX centuries.).

Despite the fact that these actions have their own specific and relate to different historical time periods, all of them in the database are the same unifying idea — the desire to overcome political fragmentation, preservation of national cultural identity and belonging to a Russian miru and momentum to upcoming development.

The ideological and theoretical nuance

This caveat consists of two closely related ideas — territorial, political and confessional. At the base of the first — the desire to overcome the fragmentation of Russia, in the database the second — the fight for the Orthodox faith and uphold its integrity.

In a sense, the brightest minds standards that were developed later zapadnorusistami, can be found as early as of early Middle Ages. For example, in the writings of St. Cyril (1130-1182), Bishop of Turov, fries advocate the unity and integrity of Russia. And it is in his fairy tales, letters and correspondence with Vladimir-Suzdal prince Bogolyubsky, which condemned the saint for separatism, antagonism of the majestic Prince of Kiev, and the creation of an attempt to be independent of the Kiev Metropolitan of Rostov diocese.

In the XVI-XVII centuries, as the colorful public mental phenomenon, ideas zapadnorusizma found a vivid reflection in the so-called polemical literature, show on the future of Belarusian and Ukrainian lands were ruled by Poland. Their formation has had a profound effect not only the fragmentation of lands of the former Old Russia, as the expansion of Catholicism in the area of canonical Orthodoxy, and then forcibly polonization and planting of the so-called Greek-Catholic (Uniate).

Their spokesmen and agents were the Orthodox patron and publisher of the first canonical Russian Constantine Ostrog Bible and his numerous followers, Jora Skoryna first printer Ivan Fedorov and Petr Mstislavets, published the book "on the Ruthenian language of the people of Rus', the creators of the Slavic grammar, on which were trained in Kiev, Minsk, Moscow and Vilnius Lawrence Zizanii and Melentie Smotritsky, the holy ascetic Athanasius of Brest, the creator of the first all-Russian history textbook Archimandrite of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra Innocent Giesel, a graduate of the Kiev-Mohyla Academy, the compiler of the Russian primer, the founder of the first Metropolitan University Russia Simeon, the forerunner of the Slavophiles and educator born in Russia crisp white Theophane Prakapovich established himself as a prominent religious figure on a white, Russia, Archbishop Konisskogo Jora, a native of Little Russia, in the works which originates Ukrainian historiography, and many other brightest and whole personality, which today Nationalists virtually impossible "to pull apart on state cavern."

After entering land of snow-white and Small Russia part of the Russian Empire, with which the forefathers of Belarusians and Ukrainians were able to avoid a full polonisation and disappearances, ideas zapadnorusizma viewed in such a unique phenomenon of church-historical school. Its representatives were not only numerous prominent church historian and activist on behalf of Bishop Joseph Semashko, whose chair from 1845 was in Vilna, the Archbishop of Misha (Golubovicha), teacher of Lithuania and the Vilnius Seminary gymnasium Gregory Kiprianovicha, and secular scholars historians, for example, Alex Sapunoff.

In general, the field zapadnorusizma in XIX-XX centuries. worked a galaxy of prominent Belarusian and Ukrainian scholars — Slavic, ethnographers, historians and theologians: Athanasius JArushevich, Joseph Turchinovich, Constantine Harlampievich, Plato Zhukovich, Mitro Gorodetsky, Nikolai Petrov, Joseph Shcherbytsky Ivan Nosovich, Misha Koyalovich, Peter Bessonov, Ephraim Kars, Xenophon Govorsky, Ivan Grigorovich, Alexander Milovidov, Lukyan Solonevich, Skrynchenko Dmitri, Ivan Malyshevsky and many, many others.

To the white of Russia in the nineteenth century, the idea of zapadnorusizma received scientific and theoretical development and justification due to the outstanding Belarusian scientist and historian Misha Koyalovich and his disciples and companions. The early twentieth century, these ideas, a fundamental grounding in the most profound
historical and ethnographic, cultural and philological research papers 5-volume work, "The Belarusians' other Belarusian scientist zapadnorusista Euphemia Kara. Specifically, thanks to these people Belarusians have been identified and described as ethno-cultural community and received a written version of the Belarusian rural dialects — Belorussian literary language (thanks to the scientist Ivan zapadnorusistu Nosovich, amounting in 1870 the first comprehensive dictionary of the Belarusian language.)

On the territory of Western Ukraine (the former Red Rus), which was then under Austro-Hungarian and Polish occupation zapadnorusistskie ideas and attitudes have evolved in the field of a massive Carpatho-Russian movement. In the XVIII-XX centuries. his devotees worked in the areas of public pedagogy, history, ethnography, literature, politics, culture and law. Here are just some names: John Eagle, Bogdan Deditsky, Misha Kachkovskoy, Alexander Dukhnovych, Peter Lodi, puppeteer Basil, Adolf Dobriansky, Misha Baludyansky, Yuri Venelin, Maxim Gorlitskiy, Titus Myshkovsky, Alex Gerovskij, Vladimir Dudykevich, Basil Vavryk, Simon Bendasyuk. ..

A very important and significant, especially for this reader, the moment: all of these people have never considered themselves part of the Great Diaspora in Ukraine or Russia Snow-white. They saw themselves as part of society and the Russian people held views on the overall spiritual and ancestral origins of the Great Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians and Ukrainians, who together make up Russian folk, original branches of the population of which is pure white and Little Russia.

Being under the influence of mind slavophiles (A.Homyakova, I.Kireevskogo, I.Aksakova, etc.), these people wanted to confront social and cultural degradation, political, economic and spiritual subjugation of their own fellow citizens Polish and German influence. This was achieved means of preserving the memory of the all-Russian roots and past Protz and development of national and cultural identity contemporaries.

Unlike artificial internationalist and nationalist ideologies zapadnorusizm — a phenomenon organic, natural, rooted in the historical origins of the tradition of Orthodoxy, has more than a thousand years, forming the base of the Russian national identity, most of the population of Russia and the snow-white Little Russia-Ukraine. In part because after 1917 the latest, atheist and zaideologizirovannoy very much power, this view of the world, never claimed to be "the only true" truth "of last resort", it was announced "an evil ideology," was subjected to a ban and remote information blockade.

Now, in territorial terms, zapadnorusizm — a phenomenon revival that began on the white Russia at the end of XX century. In the XXI century, it has been shown by several groups of Belarusian intellectuals grouped around a number of publications and public organizations. In ideological terms — is very small, regional, and not just purely Belarusian or Ukrainian phenomenon, borders and interpretations which a modern twist especially very narrow.

The fact that the form of even the term "zapadnorusizm" — is yarlychek taped in 1920. Belarusian nationalist ideologue-A.Tsvikevichem who worked on Russophobe actually in those years, the power internationalists. In other words, it is a kind of attempt to "mark the unwanted" and, at once, to denounce them to the authorities. That's why to this day, and nationalists and internationalists contrive a way to represent mutually exclusive zapadnorusizm in encyclopedic, educational and scientific literature and as a liberal, and as an evil, and as limited teaching.

Meanwhile, in fact — it was and is the one unfortunate Russian character, Belarusian or Ukrainian, which in the past 2-decades cultivated and once unsuccessfully trying to adapt for their own political and ideological goals modes of post-Soviet Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. But their efforts are fruitless, because, in contrast to the nationalists and internationalists, for those whom they labeled zapadnorussami at the time, has always been fundamentally shape and essence. Not so fundamentally as the Slavic countries in Eastern Europe — three or one, and whose swamp "sovereign." The main thing is the degradation of our society changed the processes of creation, association and rebirth.

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