Pharaohs, mummies, cocaine!

The amazing and mysterious fact exists in Egyptology. It turns out in some mummies of the pharaohs find remnants of cocaine! How did he get there? Was it just a joke archaeologists, or Egyptians made a trip to America already in those early times

Watch Mystery of the cocaine mummies

Apparently, cocaine and tobacco have been known since the time of the pharaohs. Really, their "imported" into Egypt from America? That is, this continent was discovered long before Columbus? It was believed that the first Europeans saw cocaine tree after Columbus discovered the New Earth and found a lot of new types of both plants and animals that can be seen only in America.

However, it turned out that it's actually not the case — because if Columbus was the first European to see the American land, then what explanation can be given that the bodies of Egyptian mummies have been found traces of cocaine? It turns out that in ancient Egypt long before Christopher Columbus discovered America, there were contacts with American cultures.

> Study of the puzzle began in 1992 — then the curators of the museum in Munich performed on the material of one of the many mummies scientific tests. This mummy belonged Henttavi priestess, whose age was more than three thousand years. Museum staff during the experiment asked for help from a toxicology Balabanova Svetlana, who worked in Ulm at the Institute of Forensic Medicine. From the research mummy priestess Henttavi big surprises Balabanov did not expect, as it had previously been studied pre-Columbian Peruvian mummy, hoping to find traces of the use of the coca plant. She took samples from one part-time mummy, one full and 7 branch head. To the surprise of all the participants in the study, the analysis found traces of cocaine and nicotine in the hair of the mummies.

Scientists have begun to investigate other Egyptian mummies from the collection of the Museum of Munich and received the same incredible results. German scientists were amazed by these unexpected discoveries. First Balabanov did not even believe, decided that there was an error. She checked the equipment again, and realized that the possibility of accidental entry of any foreign matter has been completely ruled out. She is inspired by this incredible discovery, has assembled a group of experts in criminology, which held a new analysis of the Peruvian and Egyptian mummies and skeletons from southern Germany and Sudan. Everywhere mysteriously revealed traces of drugs.

Balabanov and her colleagues at the end of 1992 studied about 11 Egyptian mummies and in all cases found traces of nicotine. In 10 cases out of 11 — traces of cannabis, and in 8 cases — cocaine. At least 26 Peruvian mummies had traces of nicotine. All these results have led to a lively discussion. Everyone's attention was focused on the scientists' cocaine mummies. " From the point of view of Egyptologists, such mummies in fact can not exist.

In the X century BC, according to them, no transatlantic trade could not exist, because it would lead to an absolute change people's ideas about the ancient world. According to the scientists, the studies Balabanova been some mistake. However, the methods she used are also used by private companies and the police to identify people who use drugs. In case if such methods were not significant, this would lead to significant legal consequences.

The opening of the German scientists had the effect of a bombshell. After all, the birthplace of evergreen, coca bushes are huge forests of South America. Then how did he come to Africa for more than a millennium before Columbus? The results of these studies shook the whole basis of historical science. The researcher swamped with letters and ridiculed. But later everything became clear that Balabanov in his work was not mistaken. Were found to confirm the results of her work. In the Nubian desert in a few years, scientists have discovered the bodies of people who naturally turned into mummies. Were examined by a lot of mummies who lived more than 3,000 years ago. In the tissues of many of them have found traces of nicotine. It was also revealed that 56 people have used cocaine during his lifetime.

Egyptians in everyday life are often consumed intoxicating herbs, heady juices and roots. Opium, for example, could even be given to children so that they are not annoyed by trifles. Scientists estimate that the Egyptians knew of more than 800 drugs. Since opium is clear — poppy growing in the Old World. But what about the cocaine that was found in the bodies of the Egyptians? Is there any way to explain it, without changing the conventional picture of the development of civilization?

When the initial shock of discovery, remember that these facts have been known for a long time. They just did not notice. When, in 1922 unearthed the tomb of Tutankhamun, found there are not only gold of the rulers, but the dried body of the tobacco beetle. French scientists examining the mummy of Ramses II in 1976, and still found the tobacco particles. At first, scientists have suggested that tobacco is accidentally spilled some of the archaeologists in the study of the tomb. However, of all the facts, this excuse does not explain. Samples of materials were found even under a layer of resin, which caused at embalming. You can not accidentally spill tobacco there. In addition, these substances found in the abdominal cavity of the mummy.

Tobacco is known to have excellent bactericidal properties — it protects the body from rotting. For this reason, the Egyptians used it for mummification. Perhaps even the Egyptians themselves were smoking tobacco. Researchers have found in the vicinity of the Giza clay pipes, which were dated 2000-1700 BCE The researchers chose to ignore the old school these strange discoveries and come up with a rather unnatural explanation. For example, a researcher Renate Germer argued that get unwrapped mummy of Ramses II in the XIX century and it was then that the mummy inside and got tobacco.

There are other, more plausible version. Some common plants of the Old World also contains nicotine. For example — Syrian volchnik, sedum, spotted arum. Nicotine may have in some other species of flora known to man — his search has not fought since modern satisfies the need for nicotine tobacco. Such opportunities were not the Egyptians. Therefore, many scientists believe that the traces of nicotine in the pyramids and mummies are of a different origin.

But in this case, be with cocaine? On this question, scientists still can not give an answer. Scientific can not yet prove that the Egyptians have been in the New World. But at this point time and again expressed the hypothesis. Anthropologists in 1910 when discussing the pyramids of Mexico, came to the conclusion that probably their design and not an invention of the American Indian. Technology that they could take over in Egypt. There were a lot of similarities — a custom to bury the dead in the pyramids, their design, accurate knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Scientists evaluating all parallels, have come to the conclusion that it was born in Egypt civilization and from there spread to other regions. In 1970 from the Norwegian ethnologist Thor Heyerdahl proved that on Egyptian papyrus boats could cross the Atlantic. Africans could get to America. The only question is, whether they were started up in such long voyages?

Here you can remember about the mysterious country of Punt, which was very far from Egypt. According to legend, a trip to this country lasted about four years. There was no way to get to it on foot. At the end of the XVI century BC Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut ordered an expedition and went into the country. Modern historians believe that the country is in Somalia, however, there is a strong likelihood that it could be in the territory of South America. The expedition returned with valuable raw materials and luxury goods. The ships returned to the brim loaded with goods.

The inscriptions, which were carved on the walls of the temple of Der el-Bahri said that travelers crossing the sea. All it means is that modern science has clearly underestimates the possibility of archaic cultures. Apparent on the face of isolation of Egypt was in fact "isolation" from the rest of Egyptology Sciences. Perhaps everything on Earth has evolved quite differently, as is the modern historians. Perhaps people more than once, as before dinosaurs, almost completely obliterates the asteroid impact. In this case, the remains of a civilization whose ancestors walked on ships all over the planet and had a great seafaring maps, had to re-start the story.

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