February 3, 2013 15:52
Scientists have made an unexpected and alarming discovery — a large number of new and novel mutations were found in people who reported economicrisis.
There are those who believe that in a short time with us will be fantastic, "people X». These superzemlyane go out of the secret laboratories, as in the famous blockbuster, but will be born naturally. Other scholars are less optimistic and believe that the unexpected development will lead to the unknown changes in the human body.
This is a surprising and terrible discovery is the result of a study conducted by researchers from Cornell University (USA) and the University of California.
When the genes were studied thousands of people around the world, it became clear that humanity has acquired over the past few years, new, previously unseen mutation.
Researchers examined 202 genes in 14,002 people. The human genome contains about 3 billion base pairs, the researchers studied 864,000 of these pairs. Although this is only a small part of the genome, the sample size of 14,002 people is one of the largest studies in humans.
The project is led by John November (Novembre) University of California at Los Angeles and Vincent Muzer (Mooser) of the British pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline. They report that more than 95% of the options changes found in humans, according to the sample, were rare, and in 74% of carriers have been one or two people in the study.
"I know that we will meet the rare mutation, but had no idea there would be so many!", — Said the study's lead author, John November, assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and bioinformatics in Los Angeles.
In the study, 10,621 people was one of the 12 diseases, including coronary heart disease, multiple sclerosis, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease and osteoarthritis, in 3381 there were no diseases.
"Large sample size allows us to see patterns more clearly than ever before," — said November.
We see thousands redkihmutatsy, and these rare variants often make changes in proteins than not. Thus, this study is of great importance for the study of the genetic basis of diseases in humans. This is consistent with the idea that many diseases can be caused in part by rare mutations. "
"Studies from fifty years ago, showed that the mutant gene was only one person in a thousand, but now it is diagnosed in five people", — explains John November.
Previously it was thought that genetic anomalies are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons (transposition? N — a DNA sequence that can move within the genome) and mutagenic chemicals, but now scientists have identified another factor that leads to mutation — overpopulation!
Population growth helps explain the growing number of genetic variants, the scientists said.
"The fact that we see so many rare variants, this is partly due to the fact that the human population is growing very fast," — said November. "Due to the fact that the human population has grown so much as the possibility of mutation increased. Some of the options that we found very young. Population increased due to innovations in agriculture and even industrial revolution. This growth has created many opportunities for mutations in the genome, because the number of chromosome transmission from parent to child in large groups of the population. "
As a result of overpopulation, rare gene variants are now much more likely. And scientists do not exclude that in the near future may be new types of mutations that lead to unknown changes in the human body.
There are scientists who see the benefit in mutations. Professor Darren Kessner (Kessner) University of California, for example, suggested that humans will soon be among the fantastic group of "X-Men." These creatures do not come out of the secret laboratories, as in the famous blockbuster, but will be born naturally.
"New mutations are the source of genetic changes, some of which can lead to disease and dysfunction, and others define the nature and pace of evolutionary change. This is an exciting time.
We finally obtain very reliable estimate of genetic variations that are urgently needed in order to understand who we are genetically "- said Joseph should (Nadeau), of Case Western Reserve University in the U.S..
Both: useful and harmful mutations have always existed as a completely normal, but if the number of mutations increases dramatically, no one should be surprised that the impact of this development will affect the human race …